Description and characteristics of the apricot variety Dessert
Apricot trees, strewn with bright fruits, can be seen in many country and garden plots. Quite often, gardeners complain that this culture is very unstable to frost and capricious to growing conditions. This article will discuss the variety of Apricot Dessert, a description of the plant and fruits will be given, recommendations on planting, care and protection of the variety from pests and diseases will be given.
Description of apricot variety Dessert
Dessert - an apricot variety obtained by breeders A. N. Vilyaminov and L. A. Dolmatova, employees of the Voronezh Research Institute of Agriculture. To create a variety, varieties Tovarishch, Best Michurinsky and Luise were used. Thanks to cross-pollination, it was possible to achieve good frost resistance and large-fruited varieties.
Apricot variety Dessert at creation was focused on cultivation in the zone of the Central Black Earth region
The tree of the Dessert variety has high growth energy and reaches a height of 4–5 m over several years of cultivation. The crown is sprawling, spherical, prone to the formation of many annual shoots. Due to the tendency to overgrow by shoots, it requires annual regular pruning, preferably twice a year (in spring and autumn). The thickness of the tree branches varies from 1 to 15 cm, depending on age. Branches are covered with gray-brown rough bark. The leaves are wide, rounded, with a thin sharpening to the tip. The color of the leaves is bright green in early summer, closer to the beginning of autumn, the color gradually changes to darker tones.
Did you know? Among all the organisms living on Earth, trees are long-livers whose death never comes from decrepitude. Their death is the work of man or occurs as a result of illness or attack by pests.
Dessert blooms very early, in late April or early May. Flowering time is variable and may shift in one direction or another, depending on the weather and the region of cultivation. The flowers are large, with white round petals. Flowers appear on the branches before the leaves open. During flowering, Dessert apricot is surrounded by a sweet aroma that attracts bees.
This variety has good frost resistance, but is prone to defeat in spring frost during flowering. Even a plus temperature below + 3 ° C can already stimulate color shedding from flowering apricot. That is why it is recommended to plant a tree in places protected from cold northerly winds. After planting a seedling, it takes at least 3 years before the first fruits appear on the tree.
Ripening of fruits of this variety begins as early as mid-July. The fruits are painted in a smooth, light yellow color, sometimes slightly covered on one side with a scattering of small reddish spots (blush). Fruits are mainly large, weighing up to 30 g. The pulp of the fruit is tender, juicy, sweet with a slight sourness. Inside the fruit is a small, tight bone that can be easily separated from the pulp. The yield of an adult ten-year tree can reach 50 kg.
Apricot Variety Characteristics
A variety of early ripening, the first ripe fruits appear in the first decade of July. The potential yield of the tree is high. Frost resistance is average. The lifespan of an apricot tree of this variety does not exceed 15 years.
Disease and pest resistance
Dessert has relative resistance to the formation of moniliosis and coccomycosis, which does not exclude the rapid development of these diseases under favorable weather conditions or a close source of infection.
Drought and winter hardiness
Dessert frost resistance is very good. Without prejudice to the wood and root system, the plant can withstand prolonged frosts within -15 ...- 18 ° C, as well as short-term ones up to -22 ° C. The variety can be grown without additional winter warming in the south, as well as in the central regions of Russia.
The variety can withstand prolonged drought, responding to extreme weather conditions by significantly deepening the root system. Without artificial irrigation, the tree will not die, because it will find groundwater in the lower layers of the soil, but it can discard the fruit that has set in.
Pollination, timing of flowering and ripening
Variety Dessert is a self-made plant, it can be grown without nearby pollinating trees. But still, many gardeners know that the presence of pollinators significantly increases the number of fruit ovaries, while improving the quality of the fruit. As pollinators for the variety Dessert you can plant such varietal apricots: Countess, Detsky and Lel.
Did you know? Dried apricot without a kernel calls "dried apricots", and with a bone - "apricot".
This apricot variety is very harvested, fruiting begins approximately 3-4 years after planting, but high yields begin only from the 5th year of the tree. The first fruits (up to 10 pcs.) From the tree can be tasted already in the third year of cultivation.
The fruits of the Dessert variety are not very transportable, since the delicate pulp is easily crushed, after which fermentation and decay begin in the fruits during the day. These apricots can only be transported in specially equipped refrigerators, where during the journey a constant temperature is maintained at +8 ... + 10 ° C.
For transportation, the fruits are removed from the tree a little immature. Subject to these conditions, apricot fruits will retain juiciness and freshness for 7-8 days
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Thanks to carefully conducted selection, the dessert apricot has excellent characteristics, which were appreciated by gardeners. The variety also has some disadvantages.
- Grade Advantages:
- self-fertility, the ability to do without pollinating varieties;
- large and tasty fruits;
- harmonious taste of fruit;
- good yield;
- good frost resistance;
- resistance to moniliosis.
- The disadvantages of the variety:
- the need for regular pruning of the crown;
- poor fruit transportability.
Optimal conditions for growing
Apricot trees are successfully grown in the southern regions of Russia. This crop is relatively resistant to frost, but because of its exceptionally early flowering, flowers and buds are often destroyed by spring frosts. That is why in central Russia and the northern regions, crop cultivation is associated with the risk of crop loss even during flowering. When growing apricot trees in these areas, you should pay a little more attention than other plants in the garden.
Did you know? Not only people and animals, but also trees cannot live without water. During the day, an old large tree sucks out about 200 liters of water from the lower soil layers, after which it gradually enriches the air with water vapor and oxygen in the same amount.
When planting a seedling, it is necessary to carefully choose the future location of the plant. It should be located in a place protected from the north by some capital structure (wall of the house, garage or windproof fence). It is undesirable to plant apricot seedlings in lowlands with a close location of groundwater.
Video: Apricot Planting Instructions
Apricot seedlings Dessert can be purchased in fruit nurseries or plant the cuttings of this variety on a wild plum or apricot seedling.
Apricot planting can be carried out both in autumn and spring.In autumn, it is easier to purchase suitable planting material of the desired variety, but there is always the possibility of insufficiently rooted young trees freezing in winter, so it is better to plant them in spring after thawing and warming up the soil (April-May).
Apricot trees are extremely thermophilic and demanding good lighting. They can be grown only in sunny places, protected from cold winds. Choosing the right landing site largely determines the result of cultivation. Apricots can be planted under the southern, southwestern and southeastern walls of the gazebo or house.
Between separate trees, a distance of at least 5-6 m must be maintained., because these plants have an extensive round crown, occupying a large space. If you plan to plant an apricot orchard, then the distance between the rows of fruit trees is also maintained in the range of 5-6 m.
Video: Planting and growing apricot
Trees have a well-developed and deep root system, which requires enrichment with oxygen, therefore permeable apricot soil, well-structured, rich in calcium, easily warmed up, rich in nutrients, with a low groundwater level is suitable for apricot cultivation. The culture does not tolerate too dense soils with a small amount of oxygen, as well as acid soils.
With an excess of calcium in the soil, apricot can get sick with chlorosis, so the soil must be additionally supplied with minerals such as iron and manganese. This culture does not respond well to dehydration.
Important! In chernozem, the tree is planted at the same depth as in the nursery, on light sandy soils. — a few centimeters deeper. On clay soils, deep planting can lead to cessation of fruiting.
When buying a seedling, you need to pay special attention to the root system, it must be well developed and healthy. The wood should be resilient and lively, this can be checked by wrapping several times around the thin roots around the finger. Roots that are in good condition will not break when bent. The color of the root wood at the break should have a white-pink or white-light green hue, all other shades of the roots of the wood report an unhealthy seedling.
It is also advisable to check the color of the wood of the seedling trunk, for this they damage the bark a little: the wood under the sapwood should be white, and the sapwood itself should be juicy and slightly sticky
How to plant apricot:
- Previously, for planting a seedling, a planting pit is prepared, having a diameter and depth of about 50 cm. About half a bucket of well-rotted manure is laid in the pit. As organic fertilizers, you can take not only the dung of pets, but also compost, humus. 100 g of superphosphate and potash fertilizers are added to the organics. On top of fertilizers, 2 shovels of fertile soil are poured into the pit and everything is thoroughly mixed, after which a small hill is formed in the center of the depression for planting. The height of the hill should not exceed 20 cm.
- The root system of the seedling is carefully examined before planting, after which the roots that have received mechanical damage are cut off. If they are dry or weathered, they must be soaked in water for 24 hours. After soaking, it is recommended to apply a mixture of clay, fresh mullein and water to the roots. Clay talker should have a thick consistency, like a pancake dough. Claying the roots with clay batch will help to retain moisture in them for a long time.
- The seedling is set in the center of the planting recess (on the bottom hill), after which they begin to fall asleep with soil. Near the seedling at a distance of 20–25 cm, parallel to the tree, a peg is installed for support. During the planting of an apricot, the gardener will need an assistant who will hold the tree by the branches and periodically shake it. Shaking is necessary so that the soil evenly envelops the root system.
- After the landing pit is filled, the seedling is watered, spending about 10 liters of water. Watering also contributes to the dense subsidence of soil on the roots, after which subsidence of the soil forms on the surface. The sagged soil is sprinkled so that in the region of the trunk circle a cup-shaped depression is formed. This is necessary so that the water during future irrigation does not leave the area of the near-trunk circle, but penetrates directly to the roots.
- Next, the soil around the planted apricot is compacted, after which the seedling is tied to a peg. For tying take a soft belt or strong fabric. The plant is once again watered under the root, using already a smaller amount of water (5-6 l). After absorbing water, the ground in the near-stem circle is covered with mulch (sawdust, grain husk or peat), which will protect the deeper layers of the soil from drying out.
- A planted tree needs to be watered weekly for a further month. In the second month after planting, the frequency of irrigation is reduced to 2 times per month. 3 months after planting, the seedling is watered only once a month.
Tree Care Features
Apricot Dessert is a tasty and multi-fruit variety, but without sufficient care from the gardener, the plant will not be able to show the yield declared by the breeders. The tree must be protected in time from pests and diseases, as well as pruning, digging the soil in the near-stem circle, watering and fertilizing.
Watering and fertilizer
In temperate regions, where it rains regularly, apricot can be grown almost without watering in the summer. In the south, adult apricots are watered at least once a month, using at least 5 buckets of water to irrigate each plant.
Regardless of the growing region, apricots need abundant one-time watering in autumn and spring. Such irrigation is called water-charging, its purpose is to saturate the soil in the root zone with plenty of moisture. During water-loading irrigation, at least 100 liters of water are used, water is supplied without pressure, optimally in the form of drops.
This is easy to do: put a watering hose in the root zone of the tree and regulate the water supply to the minimum, after which leave the water open for a period of 10 to 12 hours. The time for water-loading irrigation in autumn is the end of October, in spring - mid or end of April. Fruiting trees especially need moisture during flowering and ovary formation. In the south, apricot irrigation should be given special attention when pouring fruit.
For the first 3-4 years of growth, the young seedling has enough nutrition laid by the gardener in the planting pit before planting the plant. In the future, the tree must be regularly fed. Feeding is carried out after a year, usually using organic fertilizers (manure, humus).
Experienced gardeners recommend fertilizing apricot in the fall, after fruiting, combining application of top dressing with autumn digging of soil. Before fertilizing on the ground, organic matter is laid out under the tree, after which they dig the soil so that the manure or humus are in the lower soil layer. 10-15 kg of organic fertilizers are enough for one adult tree.
Since many harmful insects living on apricots hibernate at their foot, in the ground, gardeners conduct autumn digging of the soil layer under a tree.
Digging the soil in autumn simultaneously solves several problems:
- wintering insects and their larvae move to the surface of the soil, where they die with the onset of winter;
- the soil is aerated, which allows the roots of the plant to be saturated with oxygen;
- allows you to mix organic chemical fertilizers directly with basal soil.
Shallow digging of the soil is carried out in the spring.. As necessary, during the summer, the apricot tree trunk circle is cleaned of weeds. For this, it is not necessary to use a shovel, a normal garden chopper is enough.In autumn, the soil under the tree is cleaned of leaf debris and branches.
Did you know? Most apricots in the world are grown in Turkey.
Throughout the entire life cycle of the tree, the gardener carries out regular trimming of the crown. There are 3 types of scraps: shaping, sanitary and anti-aging. Formative pruning is carried out during the first three years of a seedling's life.
Forming pruning of a young apricot:
- Right after landing. Pruning is carried out with a sharp garden secateurs. 3-5 most developed lateral branches are left on the tree, the rest are removed. The tip of each side branch is cut by 2-3 cm. The seedling trunk is also shortened from above so that its height exceeds the length of the side branches by 30-50 cm. These branches will be called first-order fruiting branches.
- Second year after planting. Three lateral shoots are left on each of the lateral branches of the first order, later fruit branches of the second order will develop from them. The tips of the branches of the first order and the central shoot are cut by 10-15 cm.
- Third year after planting. On each of the branches of the second order, 3-5 shoots of this year are left, these will be the fruit branches of the third order. The tips of the branches of the first and second orders are cut by 10 cm, and the height of the central stem (trunk) is cut so that the height of the tree exceeds the length of the side branches of the first order by at least 50 cm.
This completes the formation of the apricot, in the future the gardener will only have to maintain the desired shape of the crown and carry out sanitary and anti-aging pruning.
Spring pruning is considered sanitarybecause after winter, branches of snow-broken branches appear on the apricot trees, which must be removed. Unnecessary growth of branches of this year is also cut out. Particular attention is paid to ensure that unnecessary growth does not create shading in the crown, because apricot is a very light-loving plant and will not bear fruit abundantly without good lighting. During spring pruning, diseased branches are also cut out, on the bark of which ulcers, mold or fungi are visible.
Important! Infected with diseases and pests, leaves, branches and mummified fruits must be taken out of the garden and buried deep in the soil or burned.
In the autumn, apricot pruning is carried out, during which broken and diseased branches are removed, as well as old non-fruiting branches are cut. In addition to removing branches, during autumn pruning, mummified fruits hanging on the branches are removed from the apricot. Such specimens can not be left, because they are a hotbed of fungal diseases (for example, moniliosis) and in the next season will serve as a source of infection.
Since apricots are very thermophilic plants, when grown in the northern regions, they need additional insulation for the winter. To warm the roots, gardeners lay a thick layer of mulch on the surface of the soil in the near-stem circle.
You can mulch the earth with wood sawdust obtained from non-coniferous trees, fallen leaves, clean from pathogenic pathogens, hay or straw. It is advisable to create a mulching layer with a thickness of at least 15–20 cm. Spruce spruce branches may be the upper part of the mulching layer.
Important! In the south, apricot trees do not need to be warmed; in this region, warming can cause rotting of the roots or the formation of mold and fungi on the tree bark.
The trunk of a young apricot is also insulated. To do this, it is wrapped with artificial or natural burlap, which is fixed in the upper and lower parts of the trunk. Crohn's young apricot seedlings of the first and second years of life in cold regions also need warming. For this, the branches are wrapped with nonwoven agrofibre in 2-3 layers. On a not too wide crown, you can put on a wide bag, for example, from sugar, and fix it on the trunk directly under the crown.
Video: How to cover apricot for the winter
If the garden plot is located near a forest or field, the tree bark needs to be protected from cleft teeth. Mice, hares, as well as other rodents are very fond of enjoying the delicate bark of fruit trees in the winter feedless. To exclude damage, the apricot trunk is wrapped in a metal mesh with small cells or imposed shields made of wood (thick rubber, plastic). Protection should be located from the soil and trunk length of at least 1 m, so that the hare, standing on its hind legs, could not reach the open bark.
For winter, it is recommended to whitewash apricot trunks in order to prevent the occurrence of sunburn. Such whitewashing is carried out from the end of autumn, but you can carry out the procedure in the winter, in the snow. The whitewashing of the trunk is carried out again in spring, as the sun becomes more active, and the possibility of getting sunburn for the bark of the tree increases significantly. In spring, the trees turn white in early or mid-April. To whitewash the trunk, prepare a special solution.
How to make a solution for whitewashing tree trunks:
- 1 kg of dry quicklime is placed in a ten-liter bucket and 5 liters of water are poured there, after which they mix well. After mixing in a bucket there is a violent reaction of slaking lime.
- At the end of drilling, the gardener adds about 1 kg of fresh horse manure to the mixture, mixes the components to a homogeneous consistency and adds as much water so that the liquid reaches the edge of the tank.
- The mixture in the bucket is again gently mixed, after which it is ready for use. Whitewashing is applied to tree trunks with a paint brush.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting apricots begins as soon as 80% of the crop acquires the color and size of the fruit characteristic of the variety. Fruits from the tree are removed manually, since falling reduces their quality and contributes to the rapid spoilage of fruits. Torn apricots are placed in wooden or plastic boxes with smooth walls. In the side walls and bottom of the box must have holes for ventilation of fruit.
If it is supposed to store apricots for some time, the fruits are laid in no more than two layers. More dense stacking contributes to deformation and, as a result, to quick rotting of fruits.
At home, fruits can be stored in the refrigerator, on the bottom shelf, in a special container designed for fruits and vegetables
Growing Dessert variety apricot in the garden is a very exciting experience. In addition, the fruit tree can provide the owner of the garden and his family with delicious and juicy fruits.