Apricot varieties Zhigulevsky souvenir: characteristics and features of cultivation
Apricot varieties Zhigulevsky souvenir is characterized by a high level of frost resistance and strong immunity. It can be grown not only in the southern regions, but also in the middle lane. Read how to do this correctly in the article.
Variety Zhigulevsk souvenir received its name from the city of Zhigulevsk, where he was raised by the national breeder V. Bessmertnov. Until today, this varietal specimen has not been included in the State Register.
We offer you to get acquainted with the Zhigulevsky souvenir variety closer and evaluate its advantages.
Did you know? Until now, scientists have not been able to establish the exact place of origin of the apricot. Most of them believe that he comes from China. Previously, it was believed that the homeland of the apricot tree is Armenia, which explains the other name of the fruit - the Armenian apple.
Trees do not grow too tall - their height usually does not exceed 4 m. The crown is formed in the form of a pyramid. Her thickness is average. The leaves form large, wide and elongated, oval in shape with a sharp end. Painted in a rich, green color. Inflorescences are large, white-pink hue.
Most fruits are formed on bouquet branches. The shape of the fruit is oval. The skin is painted yellow, covered with red spots. She does not have pubescence. One fruit weighs 21–35 g. The pulp is juicy, with a sweet and sour taste, orange. The bone is separated freely. Fruits tolerate transportation well, without losing their presentation and taste. They are used fresh, prepared from them drinks, preserves, winter preparations, dried.Fruits hold on branches for 2 weeks after readiness
Characteristic features of the variety
The described variety has a number of advantages, thanks to which it has gained wide popularity among summer residents and gardeners.
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
The main advantages of the variety are a high level of frost resistance and strong immunity. Low temperatures are well tolerated by both wood and kidneys. Trees quickly recover from frost. Due to this, apricots of the Zhigulevsky souvenir variety are recommended for planting in regions with cold winters. Plants are rarely affected by diseases and harmful insects. and only when conducting improper agricultural technology, or mistakes made during planting.
Important! For trees of the Zhigulevsky souvenir variety, sharp changes in temperature during the swelling of the kidneys can be fatal. Under such conditions, a hollow is formed.
Pollination and fruit ripening dates, variety productivity
The variety is self-fertile. Planting additional pollinating plants is not required for it, it is completely pollinated by insects. The ripening of fruits occurs in the second decade of July. The first fruiting can be expected when the tree reaches 4–5 years. Apricot trees bear fruit regularly and in large quantities. The average level of productivity is 40–45 kg per plant.
Apricot should grow in a well-lit area, protected from the winds. If the tree will remain in the shade for a long time, then this will affect the quality and taste of the fruit - they will be small and less sweet. Do not plant apricot Zhigulevsky souvenir near buildings or between houses. This will adversely affect productivity. A building or high fence should be located only on the north side to protect the plant from the wind.
Did you know? Apricot trees are not only grown for healthy fruits.Glue and oil emulsions are made from gum appearing on trunks, and musical instruments with excellent sound are made from wood.
Unacceptable planting apricot in areas where there is a close proximity to the surface of groundwater, or stagnation of moisture. Groundwater should be no closer than 1.5 m from the surface of the soil. The best primers for the apricot tree are light nutritious loams or sandy loams with a neutral or low acidity level.
Rules for planting young seedlings
The success of growing an apricot tree depends on whether the planting material is selected correctly and the place for planting is selected, whether the technology is followed. Seedling should be purchased only in a specialized store, or in a well-established nursery. It is not recommended to buy it at the bazaar, "with hands." The quality of the seedling can be determined by a well-developed root system, the absence of spots, growths on the root neck and cortex. The recommended age of planting material is 1-2 years. Older seedlings will be more difficult and adapt longer.Planting a thermophilic plant is best planned at the end of March - April. At this time, the most suitable conditions for the quick and successful adaptation of the plant should be observed - consistently warm weather, lack of frost. The soil should warm up to + 10 ° С, air at night - up to + 5 ° С. It is important not to miss the moment when the vegetation begins in the trees, since planting at the moment when the buds have already begun to swell threatens the death of a young plant. In autumn, apricot seedlings can only be planted in areas with warm climates. The best time for this is: end of September - beginning of October. For autumn planting, it is advisable to purchase a seedling with a closed root system.
Site preparation and equipment for the landing pit should be done in the fall. If autumn planting is carried out, then this is done 1-2 weeks before it. A pit is dug with a width and depth of 70 cm. Fertilizers are introduced into it: full mineral, organic (humus, humus), potassium chloride, superphosphate. If there are shoots on a seedling and it is planted in the spring, then they should all be removed. Too dry roots should be soaked for 2 hours in a container of water.If several trees grow on a site, then a distance of 3 m must be observed between them. Recommended row spacing is 5 m
After this, you can proceed directly to the landing, which occurs as follows:
- Drive a support stake into the bottom of the pit.
- Put a layer of crushed stone, gravel, broken brick on the bottom, which will serve as drainage.
- Fill the hole 2/3 with fertilized soil, forming a mound.
- Set a seedling on a hill, evenly distributing the roots. The root neck, in this case, should be 5-7 cm higher from the edge of the pit.
- Fill the pit with the remaining soil.
- Dig a watering circle in the near-stem zone, which will prevent water from spreading and getting under the trunk.
- Pour 2 buckets of water into the irrigation circle.
- Tie the barrel to the stake.
Video: apricot planting instructions
How to care for a tree
Caring for apricots is not a big deal. It must be periodically watered, fed, trimmed, processed against diseases and harmful insects, and also insulated in the autumn.
Watering and fertilizing
Since apricot trees Zhiguli souvenir have a superficial root system, they do not tolerate drought and need regular watering. Humidification should be done 4-5 times per season, using 20-30 liters under one plant. Watering is mandatory during flowering and before it, during the active growth of shoots, a few weeks before the fruit fully ripens. The last watering should be done in July. Humidification should be carried out in the morning or evening hours, when the sun is not so aggressive and can not provoke the appearance of burns on the ground organs.Apricot trees need regular top dressing. Fertilize in the soil begin from the second year after planting. In the spring, it is worth feeding the tree with urea in the following stages of development: before the appearance of flowers, after flowering, in case of mass fall of the ovaries. Every 2-3 years it is necessary to make organic matter. In autumn, superphosphate (150 g) and potassium salt (100 g) must be added to the soil.
Important! The introduction of nitrogen fertilizers in the fall is strictly prohibited - the plant may have problems during the wintering period.
Periodically, the soil in the near-stem circle needs to be loosened, cleaned of weeds and mulched. Loosening helps prevent the formation of a hard crust on the surface of the soil and improve its air and moisture permeability. In order not to harm the surface-located root system, loosening should be shallow. Weed grass should be removed as necessary. They pose a danger to the plant, as they are carriers of pathogens and harmful insects.Mulching is needed to preserve moisture in the near-stem zone and inhibit weed growth
Variety Zhiguli souvenir needs regular pruning. This procedure allows you to increase productivity, improve fruit quality, strengthen immunity. Formative pruning is performed in plants under the age of 5 years. Immediately after planting, a third of the trunk is cut. In subsequent years, newly formed shoots are shortened by a third. In spring and autumn, all sick, dried, deformed, improperly growing, frostbitten branches are pruned.
If there is a strong growth of shoots, it is possible to carry out pruning in the summer. In this case, the branches need to be shortened by 10–15 cm. The lower shoots that come into contact with the ground during fruiting must be completely removed. They can cause disease. In addition to pruning shoots, it is also necessary to remove root shoots. It takes nutrients from the main plant and leads to a decrease in its productivity.
Heat-loving apricot requires mandatory preparation for winter, which consists in sanitary pruning, whitewashing, warming the trunk and root system. To cut off damaged, dry, diseased, curved branches is necessary before the air temperature drops below + 8 ° С. If pruning is performed in colder conditions, there is a risk that the wounds will be poorly and protracted for a long time, as a result of which the shoots will not be able to tolerate frosty temperatures.
Whitewashing allows you to protect the bark from frost, diseases, harmful insects. It is produced with a special mixture, which can be purchased at the store or prepared independently from slaked lime mixed with mullein. The trunk should be insulated using winding coniferous spruce branches, spunbond, burlap, or other materials, good air permeability. The root system is insulated by mulching the trunk zone. Shelter with a 20-cm layer of peat, humus, sawdust.
Harvesting and storage rules
Apricots should be removed from the trees when they reach maturity, but still not too soft. It is preferable if their full ripening will occur already in a torn form. Such apricots are stored for a long time and better transported. Collection is carried out by hands, gently grabbing the fruit, slightly scrolling, separate it from the stem. In order not to damage the delicate skin, it is better to wear gloves on your hands.
Only fruits with whole skin are placed in storage. In room conditions, they can be stored up to 7 days, in the refrigerator - up to a month. In order to preserve apricots for longer, the Zhiguli souvenir can be dried or frozen. Drying is carried out on a horizontal surface or in a special drying device. For freezing, the fruits are divided into halves, placed in bags and placed in a freezer. The shelf life of frozen apricots is 6–8 months.So, the Zhigulevsky souvenir variety has several advantages: high frost resistance, unpretentiousness in care, self-fertility, immunity to major diseases and harmful insects. If you follow the recommendations for planting and care, then he will be able to please with abundant crops for 30-40 years.