Characteristics and features of the apricot variety Orlovchanin
Apricot is a southern tree that began to be grown in the middle lane not so long ago, thanks to the hard work of breeders who managed to create many frost-resistant varieties. Orlovchanin is considered to be one of the best for growing in the middle lane, therefore, we consider the features of planting and cultivating this variety at home.
Description apricot varieties Orlovchanin
Apricot Orlovchanin was obtained thanks to the free pollination of Triumph Severny seedlings under the leadership of a group of breeders composed of A. Kolesnikova, Yu. Khabarov, E. Dzhigadla, A. Gulyaeva, I. Ryapolova at the All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crops. The variety was entered in the State Register in 2006. Orlovchanin is zoned for cultivation in the middle lane, grows well in the south and partially in the northern regions with stable snowy winters.
Did you know? Apricots are grown on all continents, with the exception of Antarctica, and Turkey takes first place in the world in the number of apricot orchards.
Trees of the Orlovchanin cultivar grow of medium size, not more than 4 m in height, have a not very dense crown with sprawling branches. The branches forming several tiers of the crown and young shoots are covered with brown smooth bark. Large green ovate leaves of a pointed shape, with a smooth matte structure and small serrations at the edges, are planted on long and thick reddish-brown petioles.
Cone-shaped buds develop on a tree, collected in small groups of 3 pieces. Orlovchanin blooms with white buds, the flowers are medium, have a cup-shaped cup shape and a stigma of a pistil raised above the anther. After flowering, a small ovary is formed in place of the buds - apricot fruits. The fruits have an ovoid, slightly flattened shape and an almost imperceptible suture that connects the two halves of the fruit.
The weight of one fruit is 3 to 3.5 cm in diameter and weighs 30–40 g. After ripening, the fruits acquire a yellow color with a small amount of red dots. The peel of apricots has a slight pubescence, characterized by medium density. The apricot pulp is light in color, juicy, sweet and sour, it separates well from the seed, with a sugar content of 6.2% and an acid of 1.9%.
Apricot Orlovchanin, like any other variety, has a certain set of qualitative characteristics that are taken into account when choosing seedlings for planting in a particular region, so we will consider them in more detail.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
Almost all varieties of apricots are suitable for growing in southern hot regions with irregular rainfall and low humidity, therefore they are distinguished by high drought tolerance. Variety Orlovchanin is no exception, he tolerates prolonged lack of watering and does not suffer from irregular rainfall. Long-term drought is dangerous only for young seedlings of a plant, especially in the first year of cultivation, since they need enough moisture to build up the root system and quickly root.
Orlovchanin is characterized by increased resistance to sudden changes in weather conditions, normally tolerates temperature changes. Thanks to selection work, apricot of this variety can be grown in severe winters with a temperature drop of -35 ° C. Severe frosts can be destructive only for young trees, with a superficial root system and a thin trunk; it is these parts that suffer most during the period of snowless cold winters.
The variety is self-fertile, i.e., does not require additional pollination by other plants for a high and stable yield.Despite self-pollination, under adverse environmental conditions, the quality and speed of pollination can decrease, therefore, suitable pollinating varieties are planted for safety on the site, which serve as assistants, thereby increasing the yield and quality of the collected fruits.
Of the recommended varieties that are planted on the same site as Orlovchanin, they distinguish:
- Gold Rich;
- Mliyevsky early;
- Airlie Orange.
Important! As pollinators, you can choose any apricot variety that you like, but do not forget about one rule — timing of flowering trees should match.
Productivity and fruiting
Orlovchanin begins to bear fruit in the 3-4th year after planting in open ground. The fruiting is plentiful, regular, every year, subject to agricultural technology, the tree will yield good harvests. Apricot productivity is high, from 1 young tree an average of 20-30 kg is harvested, the maximum yield of Orlovchanin is 60 kg.
Fields of application
The fruits of the Orlovchanin variety are universal and are used both for fresh consumption and for processing. Apricots can be preserved whole as a harvest for the winter; they keep their shape pretty well if there is no long heat treatment. Jam and jams based on these apricots are very tasty, homogeneous, moderately sweet, with a pronounced pleasant sourness.
The fruits are suitable for preparing a variety of desserts, drinks, sauces, they are added to pies and other sweet pastries. Apricots of this variety can also be dried for the winter., due to the dense pulp in a dry form, they retain their volume and shape and, most importantly, do not deteriorate during prolonged storage.
Did you know? The apricot kernels are quite edible, they are often used in cooking as a substitute for bitter almonds, they are even used to prepare how many types of Amaretto liquor.
Disease and pest resistance
Variety Orlovchanin has low resistance to common fungal diseases. Especially often, trees are exposed to fungi during the rainy season or with excessive watering. Pests infect Orlovchanin apricot in the same way as other varieties, therefore, to prevent damage to the crop and stable development of the tree, they take measures to eliminate them or pre-process the crown for preventive purposes.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Apricot Orlovchanin is distinguished by a large set of positive qualities that you should pay attention to when choosing a variety for planting in the home garden.
- The main advantages of the variety include:
- high frost resistance and drought resistance;
- the versatility of the fruit;
- good yields;
- convenience of harvesting and tree care due to its small height and compactness;
- the possibility of effective cultivation in different regions;
- excellent transportability.
- Among the shortcomings of apricot is worth highlighting:
- the possibility of freezing of flower buds with a sharp cooling in the spring;
- low immunity to common fungal diseases.
For good growth and abundant fruiting, it is necessary to make a proper planting of a seedling, taking into account the recommendations for choosing a place for planting and the timing of the procedure.
Video: Planting and caring for apricot
The timing of planting an apricot seedling depends on the region: in the south, apricot can be planted both in spring and autumn, and in a temperate climate only in spring. Spring planting of apricot in a temperate climate is associated with the risk of freezing out of young seedlings, which in the fall do not have time to grow stronger and grow a large root system. In the fall, tree planting is carried out a month before the first severe frosts, approximately in late September-mid-October.
Spring planting in the south is practiced before the buds begin to swell, while the seedling is in a dormant state - in the middle-end of March, when the weather is already stable, without sudden sharp temperature changes. In a temperate climate, spring planting should be carried out in early April so that the tree does not suffer from spring frosts.
Choosing the right place
Apricot grows well only in the most lit areas, it does not tolerate shade and even partial shade does not suit him. Besides, on the north side the area on which the apricot will be planted should be protected by a fence, construction or other plantings in the form of continuous shrubs. This measure is used to protect the tree from the cold wind and drafts, which are detrimental to the plant.The soil in the area where the planting of apricot seedlings is planned should be light, have good air and water permeability. The best soils for this plant are loamy and sandy loam soils having a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. Ground water should not come close to the surface, and if there is a problem of flooding the site during the rainy season or in spring during the period of active snow melting, care must be taken to ensure that the tree is located on an elevation - an artificial embankment or hill.
Important! It is worth remembering that at a distance closer than 5 m, no fruit crops should be planted, since the apricot root system is quite large and will interfere with the normal rooting of other plants.
What crops can and cannot be planted nearby
Apricot is a rather tall tree, and this fact must be taken into account when choosing neighbors for planting on a site so that the latter do not suffer from a lack of sunlight and bear fruit well. Good fruit neighbors for the plant will be only pears, from other trees nearby you can plant ash or oak. Apricot grows poorly next to raspberries or currants, as well as stone fruit trees - plums, cherries, peaches.
Selection and preparation of planting material
In order to purchase high-quality planting material, you should visit a specialized store or nursery. When choosing a seedling, the first thing they pay attention to is its appearance. A quality plant suitable for planting will be:
- age 1-2 years;
- 1.5–2 m high;
- have at least 2 developed strong shoots;
- have a well-developed root system with 5 strong root processes, without mechanical damage, rot, dry parts and traces of pests.
Important! Transportation of the seedling to the place of planting should be carried out in moist soil so that the roots do not dry out.
If a seedling has been stored for some time after purchase, before planting its roots are inspected for the presence of dry parts, traces of rot and, if any, they are removed to a healthy living tissue. Preparing a seedling for planting consists in soaking the roots in water so that they are sufficiently saturated with moisture and then actively grow. For good adhesion to the soil, immediately before lowering the rhizome into the planting pit, it is immersed in liquid from mullein and black soil.
The growth rate of a seedling directly depends on the correctness of the planting procedure, therefore, we consider in more detail the technology of planting a tree in open ground:
- Initially, they prepare the landing pit, dig a hole in the soil with dimensions: 60 cm in width and 60 cm in depth. In the process of digging, it is immediately necessary to postpone separately the upper fertile layer.
- The bottom 1/3 of the total volume of the pit should be covered with a mixture of fertile soil and compost (for 1 bucket of soil 5 kg of compost).
- A stake with a height of at least 1.5 m is driven into the center of the pit, which will serve as a support for the young tree.
- In the pit, establish a seedling in the center and straighten all the roots to the sides.
- Cautiously, they begin to fill the soil with voids between the roots, periodically tamping. They continue to fill the pit to the top, leaving a root neck 2-3 cm long above the soil.
- Next, they make a garter of the seedling to the support with a soft natural fabric.
- The soil around the trunk is well watered, introducing 2-3 buckets of clean water into the trunk circle.
Aftercare for Apricot
Care for the young plant is carried out in the spring and autumn, leaving the tree alone only in winter. In the spring, after planting a tree, the first forming pruning is performed. To do this, cut off the top of the plant, retreating 80 cm from the ground. The following crown formation procedures are carried out over the next 2 years, before the fruiting begins.
On the 2nd year growing form the lower tier of the crown, leaving 3 strong shoots, which are shortened by 2/3 of the length. In addition, the conductor is trimmed at a height of 1 m from the point of growth of the branches.
On the 3rd year form the 2nd tier of the crown, leaving up to 3 strong shoots, they are shortened by 1/3 of the length. The branches of the lower tier are also shortened by a third, the central conductor is cut, departing 1 m from the growth point of the branches of the 2nd tier.
On the 4th year the tree begins to bear fruit, so the forming pruning is no longer carried out. In the spring, a fruiting young tree is sanitized, removing all diseased, dry, damaged shoots, as well as branches that grow inside the crown.
Apricot is watered only 4 times per season, since powerful and long roots are able to independently extract the necessary moisture from the lower layers of the soil:
- 1 watering is carried out in April, during the period of bud blooming;
- 2 times a tree is watered in May, during the formation and growth of the ovary;
- 3 watering occurs in June, when the fruits begin to ripen;
- 4 times apricot watered in the fall, in early October, to nourish the roots with moisture for the winter.
Apricot top dressing should be carried out regularly so that the tree has enough nutrients for normal growth and fruiting:
- First feeding - foliar, it is applied immediately after snow thawing, during the period of kidney swelling. To prepare a tree spray product, 50 g of urea is used, which is dissolved in 10 l of water.
- Second feeding - basal, it is carried out a week after the first, for this use ammonium nitrate (3 tbsp.), Superphosphate (2 tbsp.), Potassium sulfate (2 tbsp.), Which are dissolved in 10 liters of water. The resulting product is watered each tree in an amount of 40 liters.
- Third feeding - basal, it is introduced into the near-stem circle before the tree blooms in the form of a solution of ammonium nitrate (per 10 l of water, 8 g of fertilizing) under each tree.
- Fourth feeding - fully consistent with the third, only make it after flowering plants, sprinkling the soil with dolomite flour after watering.
Harvesting and storage
It is necessary to collect apricot fruits at the stage of technical maturity, which occurs in late July. Ripe fruits acquire a rich yellow color and are covered with a small amount of red dots, to the touch they are already slightly soft, but do not lose their elasticity.
Important! Fruits should be carefully stacked in a container without throwing, because pressed apricots are much worse stored.
For harvesting, choose a warm, dry day, it is advisable to choose a non-rainy period for the procedure so that the apricots are not saturated with excess moisture and are better stored. It is more convenient to collect large fruits not with your fingers, but to take with your palms, scrolling each fruit so that it is easier to disconnect it from the shoot. Apricots are harvested without a stalk, they are immediately placed in special boxes.
Apricots are poorly stored, therefore, the maximum shelf life can only be maximized in the refrigerator or special refrigerated rooms, observing the temperature regime within +1 ... + 4 ° С. To maintain high humidity and better preservation of fruits, special perforated plastic bags are put on the boxes.
Thus, apricot Orlovchanin is an excellent variety for home cultivation, as it is highly frost-resistant and gives consistently high yields. For ease of cultivation, you must carefully read the tips that are described in detail in the article.