Features of growing apricot Bryansk early
Apricot is one of the favorite crops grown by gardeners around the world. The most popular of them are considered early varieties. They are able to grow and bear fruit in almost any climatic conditions and produce bulk crops. The following describes the characteristics of apricot Bryansk early, and also lists its distinguishing features.
Description apricot variety Bryanskiy early
Bryansk early - A typical representative of highly productive varieties of apricot ordinary. This is a powerful plant from the family of Pink, genus Plum. The hybrid is one of the main advantages of the Russian selection. His breeding was carried out by the legendary scientist and plant grower Alexander Ivanovich Astakhov, during the 80s. XX century The basis of Bryansk early became both local productive varieties and their hybrid forms.
The variety is a tree species, about 3-5 m high, with a rounded crown. The trunk, as well as mature shoots are covered with dense gray-brown bark, with numerous cracks in the longitudinal direction. Young branches are smooth, with a fairly thin bark, covered with lentils, dark brown in color.On shoots, a rounded, slightly ovoid foliage develops, drawn to the apex, with numerous teeth on the edge, about 7 cm long.
In the phase of active flowering, sessile flowers with a diameter of up to 30 mm develop on the tree. They are located singly and are distinguished by a soft white tint. Apricot bloom can be observed from mid-March to late April (depending on the growing region), even before the leaves bloom. This is not only a characteristic feature of the variety, but also of all fruit species of this group.
After flowering, an ovary is formed, from which further grow medium-sized fruits, spherical in shape. The average weight of one apricot is about 30 g. The peel is moderately dense, uniform yellow in color, without blotches or blush. On a section of tissue moderately elastic, juicy, the bone separates well.
Did you know? Apricots appeared in Europe, thanks to the conquests of Alexander the Great, before that the tree grew exclusively in Asia and Ancient Greece.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The main advantages of Bryansk:
- good yield;
- increased cold resistance;
- does not require a pollinator;
- resistance to culture-specific infections.
- The main disadvantages of the variety:
- insufficient cold tolerance of flower buds;
- low crop keeping;
- requires enhanced care.
Apricot planting requirements
Apricot is considered one of the most unpretentious species of cultivated plants., this allows it to be cultivated in almost any climatic conditions. But in order to get really high-quality and abundant crops, before planting, it is necessary to take into account some of the requirements of the culture. They provide for the selection of the optimal time for landing, as well as compliance with special landing technology.
You can plant seedlings 2 times a season:
- late fall - spend it in the first half of October;
- in spring - The first half is considered the optimal period - the end of April.
During landing, the necessary weather conditions should be observed. It is better to resort to the procedure on a dry and clear day, in the early morning or late evening.In this case, the average daily temperature should not fall below + 10 ° C, otherwise there is a high probability of frostbite on the delicate root system of plants.
Preparing a pit for a seedling
The main success of a successful planting plant is considered to be timely and technologically correct soil preparation on the site, including the construction of the planting hole.They resort to the procedure 1-3 weeks before the expected date of planting and begin with the selection of a place for the plant. All representatives of the Plum genus do not tolerate lowlands, there is increased humidity, which is detrimental to trees. The landing site should be on a plain or a small hill, in the most open and well-lit side of the site.The site selected for landing should be carefully dug to a depth of at least 25 cm, and then you can dig a hole. Its depth should be at least 70 cm and a diameter of 60–70 cm. The removed soil should be mixed with humus (1: 3), as well as any complex mineral fertilizer, including phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen compounds. After that, the substrate is mixed with 400 g of lime and left aside, until the seedling is planted.
Important! Apricot poorly develops in dense soils, so clay soils and chernozem should be lightened. To do this, from 1 to 3 buckets of sand per 1 m² of the area of the site are added to the site before plowing.
How to plant?
Planting begins with filling the hole one third with fertilized soil, after which the tree is carefully placed in the hole, straightening the root system. If necessary, add soil to the hole so that after planting the root neck of the trunk is located at a height of about 10 cm from the soil. Fill the roots with soil in several layers, slightly compacting each of them. After that, it is necessary to create an integral trench around the mound and fill it with 2 buckets of water.If a small plant or a plant with an excessively thin stem is used for planting, after planting at a distance of 10 cm from the trunk, a wooden peg should be installed, to which it must be tied.
Features of apricot care
After the apricot is planted on the site, you should think about creating a high-quality and effective scheme for caring for the plant. This can be achieved by observing the frequency of fertilizers, special watering and pruning techniques. At the same time, seedlings should also be protected from characteristic pests.affecting the aboveground and underground parts of the tree.
Pruning is started the next year after planting. The beginning of April is suitable for this, when the most active movement of physiological fluids occurs in the seedlings. In the first few years, extra shoots are removed on the tree, forming a sparse-tier crown. To do this, grow no more than 5-6 skeletal branches located at different points of growth. Lay them so that they are formed at a large angle to the main stem.
The largest number of fruits develops on annuals and continuation shoots, therefore, after skeletal branches are formed, fruit-bearing branches should be rejuvenated annually. Before the buds swell (in early spring), they should be shortened by about half. From about 5 years old, the tree needs to be thinned and sanitary pruned.
Such procedures are carried out in the spring (April), or in the fall (end of October). In the case of sanitary cleaning, all dry and damaged parts of the crown must be removed. During thinning, the growing branches are cut inward, as well as all young shoots shading fruits during ripening.
Important! All cuts in non-wood should be treated with crushed charcoal. This will help protect the apricot from being affected by fungi and other infections.
In the first 2-3 years after planting, apricot does not need additional recharge, but then the plant requires at least 3 fertilizers per season.
If possible, each of them is duplicated, with an interval of 14–20 days:
- during the flowering period, the tree is fed with all kinds of forms of mineral nitrogen. To do this, apply liquid top dressing based on urea (50 g / 10 l of water), chicken droppings (1:13) or slurry (1:10);
- approximately by the middle of summer, the tree is fertilized with any complex mineral fertilizer (nitrophoska), they are introduced under the root in the form of a liquid solution;
- the next apricot feed is done in the second half of autumn. Any complex fertilizers based on phosphorus, potassium and calcium compounds are added to the site. Alternatively, the soil can be fertilized with chopped wood ash (500 g / m²) and chalk (100 g / m²).
Plum is poured under the root, using clean and settled water for this purpose, previously heated to ambient temperature. In this case, depending on age, the norm of the introduced water should be from 10 to 50 liters per plant.
Perform the procedure from early spring to early November, according to the following scheme:
- in the first season, young seedlings are watered once every 7-10 days, in case of drought, the watering rate is doubled;
- trees aged 2-3 years moisten the soil no more than 2 times a month, but if necessary during the summer heat it is permissible to increase the frequency of watering;
- plants older than 3 years are nourished with moisture 4 times per season. They do this in mid-April, during or after flowering, in the first half of June and the first half of October.
Important! Humidification of the soil must be combined with top dressing. This will improve the effectiveness of both procedures, as well as the activity of the interaction of the apricot root system with beneficial soil microflora.
- Furrowed - used in the case of mass plantings, water is introduced into special furrows, with a depth of 15–20 cm, which are dug along each row of trees.
- Well hole - provides for the formation of a trunk circle around the trunk, 15 cm deep, where watering is directly carried out.
- Fake - with this method, moisturize the entire garden. In this case, moisture can be introduced manually or using an automated irrigation system.
- Drip - One of the varieties of automated irrigation, in which water is individually introduced into the root zone of the soil of each tree. With this method, you can create a uniform mode of humidity of the substrate, so it is considered not only the most advanced, but also the most optimal.
The early Bryansk variety is classified as resistant to environmental challenges. However, this apricot is subject to one of the main threats to all fruit crops - pest infection. Their development harms not only the appearance of plants, but also productivity, so every seedling should be subject to preventive protection.
The most dangerous apricot pests and methods for their elimination:
|Insect name||How does it manifest||Methods of struggle|
|Hawthorn||Traces of bites on the leaves, absence or damage to the ovary||The affected parts of the plant should be treated with the drug “Karbofos” or “Chlorophos”.|
|Aphid||Small insects on the back of the leaves lead to curling and wilting of the green mass||The best insect repellent is spraying with infusion made from husks of garlic and onions. To cook it, you need 20 g of onion or garlic husk pour 1 liter of boiling water and insist for a day. The resulting liquid is diluted in 10 l of water, which is the working solution for the treatments.|
|Moth||Small caterpillars eating fruits from the inside||The tree and unripe fruits should be treated with Sumi-Alpha or Karate.|
What you need to know about winter care?
Throughout the cold season, apricot does not need specialized care. At this time, the plant is in a dormant period, so any manipulation can lead to damage and even death of the plant.
However, young trees need specific preparation for winter frosts.. This is especially important for seedlings up to 3 years old, which often freeze out during prolonged frosts.
Video: how to insulate a seedling for the winter
The most vulnerable is the apricot root system, located in the upper horizons of the soil, in order to protect it, the tree trunk circle is necessarily mulched. Peat, sawdust, pine needles, seed husks are used for this, while the thickness of the mulching layer should not be less than 15 cm.Young shoots, which should be sheltered for the winter, also need protection. To do this, install several pegs around the apricot, 10–20 cm higher than the seedling itself, and then cover them with a dome made of polyethylene, spunbond, straw. The plant is kept closed until the beginning of March, after which the shelter is removed.
Did you know? The most exotic apricot variety is Black Apricot. The plant appeared as a result of natural hybridization and is characterized by a rich dark brown color of the fruit peel.
Harvesting and storage
Early Bryansk early harvesting of apricots begins in early July, but often full-fledged fruits ripen only in the middle of the month. The only exception is the southern regions, on the territory of which fruit crops ripen 2 weeks earlier.The fruits are picked only by hand, as carefully as possible, while it is important not to damage the skin. This is the main condition for harvesting, otherwise, its keeping time will not exceed 5 days.
The selected fruits are stored in the refrigerator or vegetable store, in plastic or wooden boxes. As an alternative, you can use any well-ventilated container (with the exception of paper containers). Under the optimal temperature conditions of +5 ... + 10 ° С under such conditions, the fruits are able to maintain freshness for 14 days. However, after a week, apricots must be sorted out.
Early Bryansk is a highly productive mid-early apricot variety, characterized by increased resistance to cold. This makes it possible to successfully cultivate it in almost any climatic conditions. However, for this, the plant should be surrounded by qualified care from the first weeks after planting. Only in this way will it be able to safely take root and produce a quality crop.