Features of growing and caring for apricot Gold Rich
Apricot is traditionally considered a southern culture, but the work of breeders allows you to create varieties that can withstand winter cold and spring frost. This variety is Gold Rich, which will be discussed in this material.
Apricot variety Gold Rich (Gold rich - "golden rich") was bred by American breeders (authorship N. Fogl) at the University of Washington in 1971 by crossing varieties Sun Glo and Perfection (Perfection). The aim of the selection was to obtain a variety with high winter hardiness for commercial cultivation.. Subsequently, the variety became widespread in Europe for commercial use. Now seedlings of this variety are sold online and in nurseries for cultivation in Eastern Europe.
The apricot tree is medium-sized with an average growth rate. After 5 years, the height reaches 3 m, in adulthood - 5 m. Forming pruning restrains the height at the level of 3–3.5 m. The young crown has a pyramidal shape. In the phase of full fruiting, it becomes rounded or rounded flat. The diameter of the adult crown is 5 m. The bark on the adult branches and the trunk of the brown with longitudinal cracking. Young shoots are shiny reddish-brown, with numerous small tubercles.The growth of shoots per year is 50-60 cm. The leaves are dark green. The shape of the leaf of Gold Rich differs from the leaves of other varieties of apricots - at the end there is a notch and an elongated tip. Flowers on short pedicels, single, fragrant, white, sepals red-pink. Flowers appear and bloom before the leaves.
The superficial root system is widespread at a depth of 20–60 cm, and the main one goes 4–5 m in depth. The most common rootstock are spruce seedlings, which are semi-cultivated apricot seedlings, providing the variety with drought resistance. Some gardeners engaged in the cultivation of seedlings for the middle lane, recommend using a shoot of plum as a stock. Plum does not require complicated care and its roots do not freeze.
Fruits are one-dimensional, roundish, slightly flattened. Two halves are separated by a longitudinal groove. Weight 60–100 g, with a small amount on a tree - up to 150 g. Fruit diameter 5–7 cm. The pulp is dense with a fine texture, without hard fibers, bright orange, moderately juicy and aromatic. The skin is waxy, dense and astringent with a slight blush (10%) on the sunny side. The primary color must develop fully to provide low acidity.
Did you know? Drawing ink is made from burnt apricot kernels, and musical instruments, such as the Armenian duduk, are made from wood wood.
The taste is sweet and sour, sweetness increases as it ripens. Tasting score - 4.7 points. The stone is large, oval, thick-walled, rough, easily separated from the pulp. It is 20% of the fetal weight. The core is bitter.
The main characteristics of the variety
The apricot variety Gold Rich is highly productive and has the following characteristics:
- high productivity;
- excellent commercial and taste qualities, which provides the variety with increased consumer demand;
- keeping quality up to 2 weeks while maintaining commercial qualities;
- universal use - fresh, canning, drying;
- due to the dense skin and pulp, it withstands transportation over long distances for 4-6 days.
- high winter hardiness, (USDA frost resistance zone - 5–8);
- suitability for commercial cultivation.
Drought and winter hardiness
The tree is hardy and hardy, which is one of the most important criteria.It takes root in regions where spring frosts are a problem, and thaws are possible in the winter, followed by a rapid decrease in temperature. Planting a variety outside the normal endurance zone will lead to the death of the plant.
Important! The tree and fruit buds are able to withstand temperatures of -28 ° C, if such frost lasts no more than 3-4 hours, but flower buds freeze already at an air temperature of -1 ° C.
To delay the flowering of apricot and thereby protect the flowers from return frosts, it is necessary to extend the resting period of the tree or reduce the heating of the branches. You can save trees from spring frosts by preserving the snow cover under the tree for the longest possible time - this delays the beginning of flowering. And you can reduce the heating of the branches by spraying the apricot in early spring with diluted white water-based paint to reflect sunlight.
Disease and pest resistance
The variety is resistant to moniliosis, the most common fungal disease, hole blotch tolerance, tolerant to Sharka, there is no gum disease. There is no resistance to other diseases and pests, therefore, proper agricultural technology and treatment with fungicides and insecticides is important. In order to prevent, to prevent harmful injuries, trees are treated in the spring before bud swelling and in the fall after leaf fall with Bordeaux mixtures.
The variety is self-infertile (partially self-fertile). For good ovary formation, pollinating varieties are needed: Har Grunge, Lambertin 1, Rival. Moorpark, Sundrop or Early Ril. These varieties were declared by the creators of the Gold Rich variety, but, according to our gardeners, pollination also takes place with the help of local varieties that bloom simultaneously with Gold Rich.
Important! Self-infertile varieties can independently form only 5-6% of ovaries.
In addition, flowers are pollinated by insects, if during the flowering period weather conditions contribute to summer. To attract insects in the garden among apricots, you can plant early melliferous plants - willow bushes, reseda, sage, sainfoin, heather, even a simple dandelion will attract bees. It is possible to spray flowers and buds with honey water in the flowering phase and place the hives near the garden.
Timing of flowering and ripening
Flowering occurs in April-May before the leaves bloom. The variety is considered mid-season - the fruits ripen in the second half of July or early August.
Fruiting and Yield
The variety is early - comes into bearing at the age of 2-3 years. In full fruiting - after 5 years. Then the fruiting is gradually reduced. Productivity is high - 60–80 kg of fruit per tree. Fruiting is regular.
For the proper growth and development of the tree and a good harvest, it is necessary to provide the plant with favorable conditions:
- Sunlighting is essential for apricots throughout the day;
- southern and southwestern slopes up to 15 ° are well suited;
- it is necessary to provide protection from the northerly winds that dry out the wood tissue, which entails the appearance of frost holes and a decrease in winter hardiness;
- avoid areas with a close occurrence of groundwater (1.5–2 m), stagnation of melt or rain water in lowlands;
- apricot grows better on loams or sandy loamy well-aerated soils with neutral acidity (pH 6.5–7).
Apricot is a heat-loving culture and it is better to plant seedlings in the spring before the buds swell, so that during the growing season, which lasts 8 months, the tree has managed to take root and strengthen. But in regions with mild winters, autumn planting is also possible, but the maximum permissible period is the beginning of October, and the seedling needs to be provided with additional protection against winter cold.
It is better to choose and prepare a place for planting a seedling in the fall, digging a planting pit twice the size of the root system. The dimensions are usually sufficient: depth - 60–70 cm, diameter - 80–90 cm.At the bottom lay 2 buckets of humus mixed with a small amount of earth. In this form, the pit wintered. On the eve of the planned planting, it is good to shed a dug hole with water and dig a stake (1–1.5 m) into the center, to which a seedling will be tied.
Important! The root neck should be 5-8 cm above the ground, taking into account the subsidence of the earth after irrigation. The vaccination site should be directed south.
The roots the day before planting should be soaked in the root formation stimulator according to the instructions or in water, removing dried and damaged roots. The seedling is placed in a pit, carefully spreading the roots, and sprinkled with earth. The soil is tamped for better adhesion of the roots to the soil, watered and mulched. Around the seat you need to form the sides of the earth (water ring) so that the water during irrigation is kept near the tree. The distance between seedlings should be 3.5–4 m, row spacing - 5–6 m.
Features of seasonal care
The best indicators of yield and quality of fruits can be provided with proper tree care during the growing season.
Apricot does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil, but with a lack of moisture, development processes are disturbed - absorbent roots are poorly formed, shoots grow poorly and the tree sheds ovaries. Therefore, the watering regime should be optimal and is carried out depending on the precipitation.
Despite the fact that apricot is considered a drought tolerant species, it responds well to irrigation in the following development phases:
- before flowering (10-12 days);
- during the period of hardening of the seeds and active growth of the fruit;
- after harvesting in mid-August, one watering is carried out in the phase of formation of fruit buds of the future crop.
After irrigation, soil moisture should reach 75%, at a depth of 30-40 cm, which corresponds to the norms of water consumption - 50 l per 1 m². Overmoistening of the soil during irrigation or intense rainfall during the ripening period causes cracking of the fruit.
2 weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped. Watering in the fall in preparation for winter increases the frost resistance of wood and flower buds.
Irrigation methods and systems (along grooves or bowls of tree trunks, sprinkling) depend on the following factors:
- from opportunities;
- proximity to a water source;
- soil structure.
Timely application of fertilizers will provide apricot nutrition and good development of fruitful branches.
Important! You need to know that during the growing season the apricot garden consumes 90 kg of nitrogen, 30 kg of phosphorus, 85 kg of potassium from the soil per hectare - and these costs should be replenished.
The rational fertilization scheme is as follows:
- during swelling of the kidneys - nitrogen-containing substances;
- during the formation of ovaries and fruit pouring - complex (NPK) and potash fertilizers (potassium salts, superphosphate);
- autumn in preparation for winter - phosphate fertilizers;
- organic matter is added every 3-4 years in the form of composted manure (5-6 kg per 1 m²), taking into account the existing level of nutrients in the soil.
The main agricultural technical measures for soil care are loosening, weeding and mulching of trunks. Loosening to a depth of 15–20 cm provides soil aeration and a more rational use of soil moisture by trees. Loosening should be carried out very carefully, especially in the second half of summer - in the driest period of the year, so as not to damage the root system of trees in the surface soil layer.
Damage to the roots leads to poor differentiation of flower buds, and thereby to a decrease in yield.The soil in the garden should be kept clean from weeds, which take away nutrients from plants, obscure plantings and threaten the spread of harmful lesions. Grasses in the garden should be periodically mowed. Mulching will help maintain soil moisture and slow down weed growth.
During the growth and development of the apricot tree, the following pruning activities are necessary:
- forming trim creates the appearance of a future crown, limits the growth of the tree and forms the necessary number of fruitful branches (carried out on seedlings before fruiting);
- anti-aging pruning It combines formative and sanitary and is aimed at removing all growths that have appeared on the tree over the past 4-5 years, old, sick and non-fruiting branches, while the fruiting and quality of the crop are restored;
- sanitary and thinning pruning necessary to combat harmful lesions, to improve the lighting and ventilation of the crown and to lay the fruit buds of the future crop, while dried, damaged by bad weather and problem branches are removed.
Frosty winters can not only destroy trees, but also shorten their life. Most often, kidneys and branches are damaged, and frost holes can appear on the stem and skeletal branches. In order for the plant to prepare well for the winter, it needs to accumulate the necessary substances - before the onset of the cold snap, the apricot must be well watered with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, which increases winter hardiness.
Sheltering of near-stem soil for the winter with a layer of mulch of 10-15 cm will help protect the root system from frost and the formation of an ice layer with possible thaws. As a mulching material, fallen leaves, peat, sawdust, pine needles or crushed bark are suitable. No less damage than frost can be caused by winter pests - rodents that can gnaw on the bark of the stem and skeletal branches, depriving the tree of protection and the ability to eat, breathe, and sap.
- autumn whitewashing of trunks with Bordeaux mixtures, vitriol, water-based paints;
- installation of rigid or elastic synthetic nets or tying the trunk with synthetic materials inedible for rodents;
- sheltering trunks with coniferous spruce needles down and herbs unpleasant for rodents (mint, elderberry, ledum);
- the level of shelter should be located above the intended layer of snow;
- digging a site to destroy possible mouse holes and passages.
Harvesting and storage
Harvested as it ripens in July-August. They begin to harvest when the fruits reach the declared size, color and taste, but remain still dense, that is, they have reached consumer maturity. Overripe fruits fall off, so you should not miss the optimal time for harvesting. For transportation, it is better to collect apricots 2-3 days before consumer maturity, which improves the quality of transportation, and the fruits are able to ripen in time.
Did you know? Apricot has several names - “Armenian plum”, “fruit of health”. In India, he is considered a symbol of longevity, because the apricot tree lives more than 100 years.
For personal consumption, ripe and soft fruits are suitable, which by this time are gaining more sweetness. The best collection time is the morning after the dew has dried and the evening after 17 hours. Fruits harvested by dew and midday heat are worse stored. The shelf life of ripe fruits is 2–4 days at room temperature or 5–7 days in the refrigerator.For long-term storage (up to 3 weeks), apricots should be wrapped with parchment paper, put freely in wooden boxes and stored in a room with a temperature of + 10 ... + 15 ° C and a humidity of 50-60%. The fruits should be removed almost ripened.Planting a Gold Rich apricot variety on your site and providing the tree with proper care, you will get a wonderful harvest of sunny fruits, and the taste will delight you and your loved ones.