Features and characteristics of apricot variety Krasnoshchekiy
The Krasnoshchekiy apricot variety owes its popularity to excellent taste, good commercial qualities, and the ability to grow in different regions, without needing, at the same time, special care. In addition, by creating some conditions for growing, fairly abundant crops can be regularly obtained from the tree.
History of selection of Krasnoshcheky variety
Although accurate information has not been preserved, it is believed that this variety was first cultivated in the Central Asian region, after which the territory of modern Armenia became the distribution area of the ancestor of Krasnoshchekoy. In the late forties of the twentieth century, breeding work with this variety began to be carried out in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden.
Of the varieties of European origin, it is considered one of the most competitive, due to its marketable and taste qualities and undemanding care. It can be grown in almost all regions where this fruit can generally be cultivated. In addition, an important factor is the long life of the tree. It is entered in the State registry in 1947.
It became the basis for breeding work on the cultivation of such varieties:
- Son of a red cheek;
- Triumph of the North.
Did you know? There is a variety of apricot Krasnoshcheky Nedelin, which should not be generalized with the traditional variety. It comes from the Far East, whose fruit mass does not exceed 30 g.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The tree is a high-growing (up to 4 m), having a spreading crown. Despite this, if this crown is correctly and timely cut, a tree of moderate height can be formed. As the name suggests, the variety is red-fruited.
Of the main characteristics of the fruits, the following should be highlighted:
- average weight - 45-55 g;
- the shape is round;
- the pulp is quite porous, moderately dense, contains a lot of juice, the bone is easily separated from the pulp;
- fruit color - saturated orange with a red integumentary tone;
- taste - sweet and sour, with a pronounced typical aftertaste.
It differs in the early onset of fruiting - the first fruits from the tree can be harvested 2-3 seasons after planting. The tree lives for a long time, up to half a century.
The red-cheeked is self-fertile - it does not need a pollinator, although for better yield, nearby trees of other varieties that bloom at about the same time will not hinder
On average, one tree can bring up to 10 buckets of apricots per season. The yield indicator is affected by the way you care for the tree, the moment you plant it before the first fruits appear. In the event that you follow all the recommendations for care, you will be satisfied with the harvest. However, it should be noted that after a season of abundant productivity, a recession usually follows.
In addition, the yield can be increased as follows: ripe fruits should not be collected immediately, but gradually, in 3-5 stages. Remove the most loaded ones, wait until the same degree of maturity reaches a certain amount, etc.
The phenomenon is explained simply: the tree stops wasting its energy on fully ripe apricots, switches its resources to those that need them more. In addition, in this way you decide the storage problem - a certain number of fruits, not ripened a little, can be stored on a tree for 1-3 weeks. However, fruits that have reached full maturity should be removed almost immediately, without waiting for them to crumble.
Drought and frost resistance
The tree tolerates drought quite well, frost - worse, but much better than many other varieties.It should not be forgotten that although the culture belongs to the same family as the apple tree, it is incorrect to compare them in terms of frost resistance in principle.
Video: Apricot Red-Cheeked
Timing of flowering and ripening
The tree blooms in March and April, this period lasts 1.5-2 weeks. Harvesting takes place, depending on the region, in the second half of July or early August.
Disease and pest resistance
Red-cheeked has an average resistance to diseases and pests - heavy rainfall negatively affects this indicator. In such periods, the likelihood of developing moniliosis increases.
Did you know? Turkey is the world leader in apricot cultivation, although in some countries the fruit is called the “Armenian apple”.
How a tree resists diseases and pests is greatly affected by care and the availability of preventative procedures. In the event that the tree does not receive any care at all, in addition to the above moniliosis, coccomycosis and kleasterospirosis can be dangerous.
The transportability and marketability of Krasnoshchekoy are high. Not bad enough for an apricot, and the shelf life is 2-3 weeks.
The main advantages and disadvantages of the Krasnoshcheky variety
- The main advantages of the variety include:
- early maturity;
- no pollinator needed;
- quite plentiful productivity;
- high taste and marketability;
- grows and bears fruit on almost any soil;
- fruits have universal application;
- due to late flowering, it is not afraid of return spring frosts.
- Among the shortcomings, the most significant are as follows:
- frost resistance could be better;
- weather conditions significantly affect productivity;
- immunity is strongly affected by the level of humidity.
Optimal conditions for growing
Red-cheeked grows well in the south, in the South-Western regions, in the North Caucasus, in the Volga region, Ukraine. In addition, with proper care, it can grow normally in the middle lane, in the Moscow region and the Republic of Belarus.
Regarding the type of soil, Krasnoshchekiy is not capricious. Soils with neutral acidity are perfect for him.. It is better to choose a place with a deep (more than 2 m) bed of groundwater, well-lit by the sun, isolated from drafts. Lowlands are not suitable for growing (it’s too damp there), but there is a solution: you can make a mound.
Video: Apricot Planting Instructions
In addition, attention should be paid to the neighborhood factor. The red-cheeked poorly tolerates nearby bushes of currants, raspberries, hazel trees, fruit trees (relatives in the Pink family).
Basic rules for planting and care
All planting activities should begin with the selection of a seedling. It is more expedient to do this in the nursery: there you can buy a seedling of guaranteed quality. It is desirable that the seedling was a year old, 1.3-1.7 m long. Its trunk should not have broken branches, damage, the root system should have a light color, the roots are whole and sufficiently moist.
Apricot is planted in autumn or spring in the middle lane and in the south, and in early spring (before bud swelling) in more northern latitudes. Planting in the fall is more expedient due to the fact that the tree has time to take root during the winter, its roots will grow stronger, and it itself will begin to develop earlier in the spring.
Important! The landing site should be chosen so that the nearest shrub or tree is no closer than 5 meters, as well as the nearest building.
In addition, there is another reason: seedlings in nurseries, most often, dig for sale in the fall. If you get a seedling at the same time and plant it right away, it will be much better and faster to accept, easier to adapt. In addition, in autumn there is more choice and, accordingly, lower prices. In the spring, you will buy a tree, dug up in the nursery six months earlier, but already from what was not bought up in the fall.
In the event that the soil on your site is acidified, it should be made more alkaline by adding chalk or ash.
The planting procedure is quite simple, and should not cause difficulties, especially if fruit trees have ever been planted:
- They dig a pit for landing 15-20 days before the planned date of landing. The pit should be approximately of such dimensions: 60 × 60 × 70 m. If work is carried out in a low-lying place or on an embankment, drainage should be placed at the bottom (a mixture of river sand and small gravel).
- The upper fertile soil layer is mixed in equal parts with humus and compost, 300 g of superphosphate and 6 glasses of ash are added to every 3 buckets of the resulting mixture. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and poured into the pit slide, so that the top reaches the edges of the pit.
- After 2-2.5 weeks, the soil should settle, you can prepare a seedling. If the hill is heavily settled, they add it to the edge of the pit.
- A couple of hours before planting, the roots of a seedling are dipped in an earthenware mash, when the clay dries out the tree can be planted.
- A stake of such height is driven into the bottom of the pit so that it rises 50-70 cm above the edge of the pit, while remaining confidently in the ground. The tree is set on top of the knoll, the roots are straightened and covered with earth, rammed several times. It is necessary to ensure that the neck of the root is 4-6 cm above the ground.
- The tree is covered with soil, tied to a peg. In a radius of 50-60 cm from the trunk make a circular mound of soil, 10-15 cm high - a trunk circle. 2-3 buckets of warm water are poured into this circle, and when it is absorbed, the circle is mulched with sawdust or peat (straw).
Further care of the tree consists in fertilizing, pruning, watering, disease prevention and autumn warming. In addition, weed removal, which is a source of disease and pests, must be removed. Weeding the surrounding areas should be carried out, removing weeds.
Video: Planting and further care for apricot
After each irrigation of the near-stem circle, weeds are removed and the soil is loosened in it. Although the roots of this variety and lie deep, but loosening deeper than 10 cm is not worth it, this is not necessary.
Important! It is forbidden to water the apricot tree during flowering or immediately after its completion — excess moisture during this period can lead to mold. In addition, excess water at this time has a bad effect on the formation of ovaries.
Watering is carried out only if the weather is dry in spring and summer, otherwise they may not be needed at all. The main stages when you need to water an apricot are as follows:
- 2-3 weeks after flowering;
- as soon as young apricots begin to form;
- fruit loading;
- after the final harvest;
- after leaf fall, in the winter.
Fertilizing is not required in the first year after planting. Subsequently, the feeding procedure is as follows:
- The introduction of organic fertilizers (watering with a solution) shortly after flowering ends, use mullein or poultry droppings. Organics should be handled carefully - it can burn the roots.
- Foliar top dressing during flowering (spraying). Apply a solution of urea (5 tbsp. L / 5 l of water), or bird droppings (100 g / 5 l of water) on each tree.
- After flowering, foliar top dressing with nitroammophos is performed (3 tbsp. L / 5 l of water).
- At the end of June, but no later than 4 weeks before harvesting, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, after harvesting - potash and phosphorus fertilizers.
Correct pruning is very important for tree crown formation. In addition to the formative function, the procedure performs a rejuvenating and healing function. The fact is that excessively overgrown crown causes poor aeration, prevents access to sunlight and is a hotbed of pests.
Remove all unnecessary young shoots (that which grows vertically up and in the crown, leaving only vertical outer shoots), dry and damaged branches.The procedure must be performed, without fail, at least twice a year: after full leaf fall and before the kidneys swell. As necessary, the event is carried out during the season.
In spring, stimulating pruning is performed - the branches are cut to 1/3 of the length (at the first spring pruning, the branches are shortened by 2/3). This is done to stimulate the growth of branches and better formation of ovaries.
After harvesting and shedding foliage, Krasnoshchekoy is prepared for winter: dry branches and parts of the bark are removed. Opal foliage is removed from the entire projection of the crown, the remaining fruits and other garbage are dug up the soil, bringing, at the same time, ash.
Did you know? Nitrogen is not introduced in the second half of summer (harvesting), it leads to the fact that the frost resistance of the tree is greatly reduced.
Then you should do the warming of the trunk:
- The trunk is whitened, capturing the lower part of the skeletal branches. For whitewashing use a mixture of hydrated lime and a solution of copper sulfate.
- The stamp is wrapped with any insulation (agrofibre, synthetic winterizer), strengthened with wire.
- Around the trunk, at a distance of 12-15 cm from it, 4-6 pegs are installed, reaching the height of the skeletal branches growth.
- A layer of roofing material is wrapped around the pegs, reinforced with wire. Straw is poured inside the roofing material.
- The trunk circle is mulched with sawdust or peat, on top of the spruce branches.
Disease and Pest Control Tips
Various diseases caused by fungal infections are much more difficult to treat than to prevent. In addition, one tree is rarely affected, since spores are easily carried by the wind, infecting other stone fruits. Bordeaux fluid, Chorus, is quite effective against moniliosis. A tree is sprayed in the fall, after leaf fall, and in the spring, before the flowering period begins.
Preventive measures against the development of diseases and the appearance of pests are:
- timely fertilizer - they not only help to get a plentiful harvest, but also strengthen the immune system, which, in turn, helps to resist diseases:
- carry out a careful inspection of the tree in the fall - the sooner you find signs of disease or the presence of pests, the sooner you take measures to combat them and your chances of success will be significantly higher;
- remove all dry branches, bark, diseased and deformed fruits around the plant;
- do not forget whiten - this measure not only helps to protect against rays reflected by snow, but also helps to protect against pests (there is vitriol in the composition);
- at least twice a year trim the crown.
As a preventive measure, in addition, they spray the crown in autumn and spring with 7% urea solution or 1% boric acid solution.
If, however, preventive measures are not enough, such drugs are used:
- Delors et al.
Pests (tick, weevil, moth, etc.) pose a threat to Krasnoshchekoy. They fight insects with:
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting is best done in dry, clear weather, in three to five stages. Apricots are torn off, breaking off the stalks, neatly stacked in containers. Harvest in the morning or after sunset. Apricots collected in cold or hot weather lose their taste and aroma, and those that are picked wet (after rain) are poorly stored.
For storage, you need to pluck slightly unripe fruits - they ripen at home and tolerate transportation well. Completely ripe apricots need to be eaten or processed right away, because from them you can cook many different goodies.
Although apricot debt is not stored, but slightly unripe fruits collected in dry weather, laid in a wooden or plastic box, can be stored in the cellar for up to 3-4 weeks
Red-cheeked is a wonderful, time-tested, apricot variety.It is distinguished by high productivity and excellent taste, and in addition, it will decorate any garden with its color, while it is absolutely unpretentious in maintenance.