Features of growing and caring for strawberries Nightingale
Garden strawberry Solovushka is characterized by high productivity and unpretentiousness. The variety is quite popular among gardeners. The article discusses its main characteristics and features of cultivation.
General characteristics of the variety
The nightingale was brought out more than 10 years ago by the doctor of agricultural sciences, professor S. D. Aitzhanova at the Bryansk Agricultural Academy. However, the variety has not yet been included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements.
Growing Regions and Ripening Period
Strawberries performed well in drought and frost. It is successfully grown both in the southern and northern regions - from the Moscow Region to the Urals and the Kamchatka Territory. The Solovushka variety is not demanding on climatic conditions. It is easily adaptable and stably gives good yields.
Nightingale - a variety of medium ripening. For example, in Central Russia, the first berries are picked from the second half of June. The fruiting period is about 30 days.
The biological description of the bushes
The bushes are compact, up to 40 cm in height and up to 60 cm in diameter. The leaves are saturated green, medium wrinkled, with sharp teeth along the edges. Feature of this grade - thin spreading peduncles that do not withstand the severity of berries.
In the first year, bushes form from 7 to 9 peduncles, in the second - up to 20. Sometimes summer residents thin them out so that the size of the berries does not decrease. Peduncles are located low, hiding under the foliage. To preserve the appearance of the fruit of the garden, it is advisable to mulch or cover with a film.
In the first year, the Nightingale releases a lot of mustache - This is the most favorable period for the propagation of the variety. For this, separate strong uterine bushes are distinguished. From the second year of the mustache, little has been formed.
Characterization of fruits and their purpose
Fragrant berries with a characteristic luster of a round-conical shape with an average weight of 30–40 g can reach 50 g, have a juicy bright red pulp - not watery and not too dense. However, often there are fruits with an empty center.
With prolonged rains or heavy watering, the flesh loosens and becomes watery. The fruits of the first harvest are always greater than the subsequent ones.
Did you know? By the content of vitamin C, strawberries are almost inferior to citrus fruits. 100 g of berries provide 98% of the daily dose of vitamin.
Berries - universal purpose. Good for use immediately from the garden, suitable for freezing and cooking jams. However, jam or compote with a whole berry cannot be cooked. Due to the rather loose pulp, strawberries are very boiled.
Productivity and Transportability
In the first year, up to 500-600 g is collected from one bush, which can be attributed to good productivity. In the second and subsequent years - up to 0.8–1 kg.
Transporting poorly. Strawberries can be transported over short distances in small containers. During rains, the fruits become soft, transportation may become impossible.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Before buying a strawberry variety, you need to familiarize yourself with its strengths and weaknesses..
- The advantages of Nightingales include:
- average ripening period;
- universal berries;
- friendly ripening of fruits;
- high frost resistance - tolerates frosts up to –30 ° С;
- immunity to a number of diseases - spotting, powdery mildew;
- use as a parent for the cultivation of new varieties;
- powerful bushes.
- Among the minuses distinguish
- friability of berries, the presence of voids;
- dependence of fruit quality on weather conditions;
- low resistance to diseases of the root system, gray rot (especially during rains);
- by the end of the fruiting season, the berries are smaller.
In spring, strawberries are planted in the soil when it warms up to at least + 8 ° C, choosing healthy strong bushes. Such plants should have 3-5 leaves without signs of disease, a thick root neck, roots no shorter than 7 cm.
Better strawberries show themselves in ridges after greens: onions, dill, parsley, garlic, peas or beans.
The best time to land - from late April to mid-May, when there is still no heat, and there is already enough light. The Nightingale, planted in spring, begins to bear fruit in the same year.
If you decide to plant plants in the fall, do it from the end of August until mid-September. The bushes will have time to acclimatize and grow roots until the first frost.
Location and layout
The variety needs light and neutral or slightly acidic soil (with a pH of 5.5–6.5). In addition, the soil should be light. To achieve this, in the fall, before digging, 1–2 buckets of compost, 50 g of mineral fertilizer, 1–2 l of wood ash per 1 m² are brought into the ground.Dig the earth to the depth of the bayonet shovel.
By spring, such soil will ripen and settle. It will be the perfect place to plant strawberries.
Important! If in the fall it was not possible to carry out work, you can prepare the soil in spring. The beds should be ready 2 weeks before planting the bushes.
Bushes are planted in a two-row method. The ideal spacing between plants is 35–50 cm, say 30–35 cm, but no less. Between the rows leave 50–70 cm. No more than 4 bushes are planted on 1 m². With this arrangement, the plants are easy to care for and convenient to harvest.
If strawberries were purchased in small plastic pots, they take it out and shake the soil from the roots. It is recommended that the bushes be kept in honey water for 2 hours before planting (1 teaspoon per 1 liter of standing water). They absorb all the vitamins and will quickly begin to grow in a new place.
A shallow hole is dug in the ground. If humus was not added, 20 g of fertilizer with microelements are poured into the recess, mixed with soil. At the bottom of the hole make a mound, on which they put a strawberry bush.
If the roots are bent, they are too long. They can be safely cut with a sharp secateurs so that when placed in a hole they freely descend the mound to the bottom. They should not bend up.
Well watered well - 0.5–1 L of settled water is enough for the roots to be saturated with moisture. When the recess is covered with earth, pay attention to the location of the central kidney or "heart". If it turns out to be covered with earth, it will begin to vypryvat and rot, which will lead to the death of the plant. If it is high, it is likely that it will freeze in winter. The best option is when the central kidney protrudes slightly above the soil level.
The earth around the plant is slightly tamped. A mustache and damaged leaves are cut off from a planted bush. At the end, they mulch the soil - cover it with a layer of sawdust, peat, hay. This procedure protects the strawberries from weeds, protects the soil from drying out and overheating, and berries from dirt.
The nightingale is classified as unpretentious varieties. But minimal care is still required.
Watered strawberries with warm water (approximately + 20 ° C) in the morning. Before flowering, the sprinkling method is used. When the strawberry begins to bear fruit - only under the roots, avoiding moisture on the leaves, flower stalks and berries. Constant loosening and mulching will help maintain moisture.
After harvesting in August, the bushes are watered once every 7-10 days. During the rainy season, watering is stopped.
Important! The laying of flower buds depends on the quality of watering in the fall. Do not overdry the soil to a state where strawberry leaves wilt and dry. But "locking" should not be allowed.
In early spring, strawberries are fed with nitrogen fertilizer.. At home, it can be prepared by diluting 20 ml of ammonia in 5 liters of water. The solution is watered bushes at the root. In addition to effective top dressing, you will also receive protection from larvae eating the roots and weevils, which harm the buds.
During budding, plants are fed potassium. For these purposes, pour 1 cup of wood ash per day 1 liter of hot defended water. The resulting concentrate is diluted with 9 l of pure water. Top dressing is applied at the root, spending about 1 liter of solution per 1 m².
Yeast fertilizer is applied before flowering., during the formation of ovaries and active fruiting. 1 kg of pressed natural yeast is added to 5 l of settled water at room temperature. The resulting concentrate was diluted with pure water in a ratio of 1:14. 0.5 l of fertilizing is poured under each plant.
During flowering, strawberries need boron. It strengthens flowers and promotes the formation of ovaries. 2 g (1/2 tsp) of boric acid are diluted in a cup of hot water (since it is poorly soluble in cold water) and added to 10 l of settled water. Plants are thoroughly sprayed, trying to get on the flowers. After harvest in mid-late August, strawberries are fed with bird droppings or mullein, 1 part of which is bred in 10 parts of water, insisted for 2 days. Fertilizer is applied to the grooves between the bushes or rows at the rate of 1 liter per plant.
At the end of October spend the last top dressing, introducing potash and phosphorus fertilizers. In 10 liters of water, 1 tbsp. urea, pour 0.5 l under each bush. Also used the drug "Kemira Lux" at the rate of 50 g per 1 m² and other complex fertilizers.
Preparation begins with trimming old leaves in early or mid-August. However, summer residents do not give a unified assessment of such work. To understand whether or not to perform them, try pruning foliage from part of the bushes. In the spring it will be seen which plants will better tolerate the winter.
Only the plates are cut, leaving the petioles sticking out. So you definitely won’t touch the central kidney - the “heart”. At this time, strawberry mustaches are also removed, loosened and spud bushes. Weeds are cut, leaving part in the soil - in the future they will become fertilizer.
The beds are abundantly watered, crushed with wood ash and mulch a layer of 5-6 cm needles - the best material for strawberries. Sawdust can also be used as mulch.
Being frost resistant The nightingale does not require special measures to preserve plants in the cold. In the southern regions, it is enough to cover the bushes with straw. In more severe climatic conditions with snowy and frosty winters, the Nightingale needs to be insulated. Shelter her in October after the first frost.It is better to use spruce branches (branches of conifers). It provides good ventilation and frost protection.
Spanbond, agrotex with a density of 60 g / m² is also great. Usually the material is pulled over arcs mounted above the bushes. It is not recommended to spread it directly onto the soil - in places of contact it will freeze even more.
It is not recommended to use leaves or tops to protect strawberries from the cold. They coalesce, blocking the access of fresh air to plants - increases the likelihood of the bushes to melt during thaws.
Diseases and Pests
Variety Solovushka is almost not affected by strawberry mites, powdery mildew, brown spotting. However, during rains, it can be affected by gray and red root rot, late blight. To prevent diseases, it is recommended to spray the bushes with fungicides - “Trichoderma verida”, “Ridomil Gold”.
From late blight strawberries are treated with “Quadrice” (10 ml are diluted in 10 l), introducing 1 l under the root. Before flowering, spray with a solution prepared from 6 ml of the drug and 10 l of water.
Gray rot can destroy 80% of the crop.To prevent this from happening, plants are sprayed with Thiovit or colloidal sulfur. As preventive measures, weeds are regularly removed from the beds, and the soil is mulched.
From brown spotting plants are treated with Acrobat or Ridomil. To prevent the disease, strawberries are sprayed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (1-3 g per 10 l of water) or boric acid (5-10 g per 10 l of water).
To protect the Nightingale from invasion weevils, ticks, beetles before flowering, spraying with "Fufanon", "Kemifos" or "Novaktion" is carried out. After harvesting - Actellik, Novaktion, Fufanon or Kemifos.
In autumn, before shelter, preventive spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid (10 g per 1 liter) is mandatory. To protect against damage by fungi, horse sorrel is used. A bucket of finely chopped greens is poured with water, insist 2-3 days. Contribute 0.5 l under each bush.
Harvesting and storage
The fruits of the Nightingale ripen together. In one collection, 2-3 ripe berries are removed from the bush.
Did you know? Strawberries have 35 thousand genes, and a person has only 25 thousand. Its genome coincides with the genome of apples, peaches, pears and raspberries more than half.
And in terms of frost resistance, it surpasses many favorites of the strawberry market. It is unlikely that the variety is suitable for industrial production, but it is worth buying for your own summer cottage.