Features of growing redhaven peach
Peach has always been considered a southern and rather whimsical plant. But the efforts of breeders have been bred hybrid varieties that grow well not only in hot climates and are relatively undemanding in care. It will be about one of these varieties - Redhaven.
Characterization and description of the variety
Redhaven (Redhaven) appeared in 1940 at the University of Michigan and still occupies most of the peach plantings in the United States. It is very popular all over the world and is considered the standard for breeding new varieties. In the Russian State Register, "American" was registered in 1992 with a recommendation for cultivation in the North Caucasus region.
Did you know? Hungarians call the peach “the fruit of peace” because it has the ability to enhance mood and eliminate feelings of anxiety.
Redhaven is a mid-season variety with beautiful tasty fruits. The plant is medium-sized, does not grow above 5 m. With this growth, the diameter of the spreading crown reaches 10 m. On an almond scion, the growth of an adult tree does not exceed 3 m. And on a dwarf scion, a mini-tree (patio) will grow with a maximum height of 1.7 m and compact crown. Compared to other fruit trees, Redhaven is a long-liver, he lives 40 years.
Description of the fruit:
- weight - 120–250 g;
- shape - round, slightly elongated;
- diameter - 60–70 mm;
- color - yellow, bright red blush occupies more than half of the surface;
- peel - thin, but dense, slightly pubescent, easily removed from a mature fetus;
- the flesh is yellow-orange in color, juicy, slightly fibrous, the bone is easily separated;
- taste - sweet, tasting rating - 5 points out of 5.
Redhaven blooms in the middle: in mid-late April or early May. Flowering time directly depends on the characteristics of the region. Flowers are single, medium in size (22–25 mm), with 5 petals. The color is bright pink. During flowering, a strong and very pleasant aroma is heard.
Redhaven has a clone sibling - Earley Red. Varieties are very similar in characteristics. The only difference is that Airlie Red blooms, and, accordingly, ripens 10 days earlier than the "brother".
Did you know? The Russian name for peach comes from the Latin phrase “Persian apple”. The Romans believed that Persia was the birthplace of this fruit.
One of the advantages of Redhaven, which distinguishes it from other peaches, is its resistance to low temperatures. Trees normally winter at -25 ° C. They do not scare them and return frosts in the early spring, since their buds form much later.
In the case of the American peach, fruiting begins quite soon - in the 3-4th year, and in the seedlings of the patio - in the 2nd year after planting. Yields are high: a 10-year-old tree brings 35-50 kg of fruit per season, and older specimens - up to 100 kg. Mini-trees also give a good harvest - 10-12 kg.
Self-fertility is another characteristic feature of the variety. Trees normally form ovaries in a single planting and in a single-variety garden. But they can bear fruit as much as possible only in the vicinity of other peach varieties that bloom at the same time. Peaches of the following varieties can cope with the role of a pollinator: Golden Anniversary, Gift of Kiev, Ambassador of Peace and Memory of Shevchenko.
Advantages and disadvantages over other varieties
For many years, Redhaven has remained popular among gardeners due to its advantages.
- These include:
- great taste;
- good presentation;
- excellent transportability;
- early and regular bearing;
- high productivity;
- resistance to frost and frost;
- immunity to major diseases.
- There are also disadvantages:
- with poor care, it is affected by curly leaves, kleasterosporiosis and powdery mildew;
- tendency to overload with fruits and the need for normalization.
Agricultural Technology Peach Growing
Compared to other, more moody varieties, Redhaven is less demanding. But compliance with all agrotechnical conditions is very important. It contributes to the normal growth of the tree, strong immunity and abundant fruiting.
Soil and plot selection, humidity and lighting
The place must be selected very carefully.
- it should be even and open to the sun, not in a valley so that moisture does not stagnate;
- closed from the north winds by the wall of the house, fence or other trees;
- the distance to the nearest large trees and buildings is sufficient for the growth of a wide crown (10 m in diameter);
- the soil is loose, fertile, slightly acidic, loamy or loamy;
- groundwater should not rise to the surface closer than 1.5 m.
A tree tolerates drought more easily than waterlogging. In wet marshy soil it may not take root or it will hurt.
Important! If a seedling grows in the shade of trees or a building, its growth and development will slow down. There will be few fruits, they will be small and acidic.
Landing dates and air temperature
Landing times may vary depending on conditions in the region and weather conditions. But it is better to plant seedlings not earlier than mid-April or even at the end of the month. An important condition: the ground should warm up sufficiently, without the risk of frost, therefore, if the night air temperature does not stably fall below + 10 ° C, it is time to start planting.
Features of planting peach
Redhaven’s planting technology is simple and no different from that of other peach varieties. Exactly following all the simple rules is the key to a healthy and abundantly bearing tree.
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
Planting material is best purchased in a fruit nursery closest to the planting site. In such specialized enterprises, seedlings are adapted to local conditions and have undergone the necessary preparation for planting, for example, primary pruning. Such specimens will easily and quickly take root in a new place and will be able to begin to bear fruit earlier. The selected tree should be well examined.
A good seedling:
- the bark at the site of inoculation and throughout the trunk is smooth, even, without growths and damage, a uniform brown color;
- the root system is well developed, clean, moist, without traces of rot and disease.
Landing pit preparation
It is advisable to prepare the site for planting a seedling in advance, in the fall. To do this, dig it, clean it of weeds and add organic fertilizers. The pit is also prepared in advance, in 2 weeks or even a month.
- dig a recess of about 70 × 70 cm (depth and width);
- pour fertilizer into the pit (if fertile land - 0.5 kg of wood ash and 50 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride, if poor - 5-7 kg of humus or compost).
The landing process looks like this:
- Drive a wooden stake 1 m high at the bottom of a dug pit, which will serve as a support for the tree.
- Pour a mound of fertile land mixed with fertilizer.
- Spread the roots of the plant on top of the mound.
- Gradually fill the ground with layers, carefully compacting each layer, taking care not to damage the roots.
- Pour 3-4 buckets of water.
- Cover the trunk circle with a 10-centimeter layer of straw, peat or sawdust mulch.
- Tie the barrel to the support.
Features of Redhaven Peach Care
Measures to care for the seedling after planting are standard. These include watering, top dressing, pruning, preparing for winter, and protection from diseases and pests, so you need to make some efforts.
Feeding and watering
Peach is characterized by drought tolerance and does not like much moisture.Nevertheless, in critical growing periods, the tree needs abundant watering (2-3 buckets of water for one plant).
These important periods are:
- the beginning of flowering (in April);
- fruit setting (June);
- before fruit ripening (July).
The rest of the time, you can do 0.5–1 bucket of water under a tree 1-2 times a month. Watering should be coordinated with precipitation: if the summer is rainy, then there is no need for them. For watering, you need to dig a trench around a tree with a radius of 60–70 cm. Irrigation water should be settled and heated in the sun. The next day after moistening, the soil should be loosened to resume air access to the roots.
The introduction of nutrients should coincide with irrigation.
The feeding schedule looks like this:
- in spring - prior to the movement of the juice, spraying with 7% urea solution (2-3 liters per 1 seedling) or, when leaves appear, before watering, distribute ammonium nitrate (70 g) in the near-stem circle;
- in summer - scatter superphosphate (100 g) and ammonium nitrate (50 g) around the trunk and pour;
- in the fall - Before digging, add superphosphate (40 g) and calcium chloride (50 g), and once every 2-3 years - organic matter (humus or compost).
By pruning peach trees correctly, you can rejuvenate them, regulate the amount of harvest, the size and taste of the fruit, and also protect them from diseases. Seedlings grow very quickly, so pruning should be annual. The most suitable time for this procedure is early spring, before the sap flow begins (early to mid-April).
Types of pruning needed by peach:
- Formative: the crown is formed in the first 4 years, in subsequent years its shape is maintained by thinning. The crown should be spreading, well ventilated and illuminated by the sun, this affects the quantity and quality of the fruit and facilitates the care and harvest.
- Anti-aging: shoots older than 3 years are cut off, because fruits are formed only on annual shoots. Without this measure, the plant grows old quickly, the yield decreases, the branches become bare.
- Sanitary: all damaged, dry, frostbitten and diseased branches are removed.
- Rationing of fruits: held in the summer (usually in June), when the small fruits have a diameter of 1.5 cm, leave the ovaries at a distance of 10 cm, and cut the rest with scissors. If this is not done, the harvest will be plentiful, but the fruit will be small and sour.
Important! Rationing of fruits must be done on time. Otherwise, you can even be left without a crop.
Diseases and Pests
Redhaven has immunity to some diseases, and there is no immunity to other fungal infections.
In addition, the variety is prone to pest attacks, so you need to know how to protect the tree:
- Curl of leaves. In the spring, young leaves swell, curl, blush, and then dry and crumble. Treatment - spraying with copper sulfate, a solution of copper chloroxide, the drug "Chorus" or "Polycarbocin", 2-3 liters per 1 plant. Prevention - sanitary pruning of diseased shoots, processing of cuts with garden varieties and spraying of land in the near-stem circle and between rows of potash fertilizers.
- Fruit rot. The fruits are first covered with brown and brown stains, and then completely blacken and rot. Treatment - spraying with fungicidal preparations "Fundazole" or "Skor" (1-2 liters under a tree). Prevention - the fight against pests that transmit the infection (weevil, caterpillar caterpillar).
- Moniliosis. Leaves, ovaries and fruits are covered with gray growths, darken, harden and crumble. Treatment - spraying with "Nitrafen" (2-5 liters under the plant). Prevention - timely removal of damaged shoots, leaves and fruits, pest control and autumn whitewashing of the trunk.
- Weevil. When it appears, the ovary withers, dries and falls, the fruits are affected by fruit rot. Means of struggle - Fitoverm, Decis.Prevention - loosening and weeding of the near-stem circle, autumn digging of row-spacings, cleaning and burning of fallen leaves.
- Eastern codling moth. Damaged caterpillars shoots dry up, and the fruits fall ill with fruit rot. Means of control - Metaphos, Karbofos, coniferous concentrate (1-2 liters per tree). Prevention - digging the ground in the fall, harvesting fallen and rotten fruits from branches, setting traps.
- Aphid. The ovary withers, the leaves turn yellow and curl, the tops of young branches are deformed. Means of control - “Decis”, “Inta-vir”, infusion of garlic, sprinkling with wood ash. Prevention - attracting aphid enemies (installing birdhouses for starlings, sowing parsley, dill and carrots).
Harvesting and storage
The ripening is average - the second half of July or the first half of August. Fruits do not ripen at the same time, therefore fruiting is long. Harvesting can stretch for 20-30 days.
For the purpose of selling, peaches are harvested at the stage of technical maturity, without waiting for complete ripening. In this state, the fruits tolerate transportation well and can be stored for some time. For food, they are removed from the tree when they are fully ripe and soft.
- Ripe peaches are not stored for long:
- at room temperature - 3-4 days;
- in the refrigerator - 1 week.
- Unripe fruits are stored longer:
- in the basement at a temperature of 0 ... -2 ° C - up to 1.5 months;
- in the freezer - even longer.
To grow Redhaven peach, you need to try a little. The result of the labors will be an annual abundant harvest of delicious and beautiful fruits.