Features of New Jersey Apricot
It is impossible to imagine summer without tasty, sweet and fragrant apricots. One of the prominent representatives of these stone fruits is the New Jersey variety. It is ideally suited for cultivation in areas with a temperate climate and has many positive qualities, which will be discussed in the article.
Variety Origin History
Apricot New Jersey was bred by American breeders in 1971. The hybrid variety received from its predecessors the ability to produce high and stable crops, well withstanding adverse climatic conditions that in no way affected the taste of the fruit.
Did you know? In ancient Egypt, women wore magical amulets on their breasts made of apricot stones coated with a special varnish.
Characterization and description of the variety
New Jersey is mid-season. Brings a high harvest of high-quality and delicious apricots. Abundant fruiting occurs 6-7 years after planting seedlings, but the first fruits can be obtained already for 2-3 years. It is characterized by endurance to dry weather, and can grow on heavy and wet soils. The fruits are distinguished by excellent commodity indicators, which is why they are highly valued in the market.
Trees of the American apricot cultivar grow strong, up to 4 m high. They have a well-developed fibrous root system, which is almost not affected by root rot. Crohn is not large and not very thickened. The foliage is deep green. From 1 tree an average of 40-50 kg of crop can be harvested.
Did you know? In Europe, apricots appeared thanks to Alexander the Great, who brought them from the East.
The fruits of New Jersey have a rounded oblong shape. On average, the weight of one apricot is from 60 to 90 g. The color is rich yellow, a pink blush appears on the sunny side, there is a slight pubescence. The pulp is medium density, yellow, not too juicy, sweet-sour to the taste. The bone is well separated from the pulp.
Flowering and pollination
New Jersey blooms quite early (in early April) and can re-bloom after the frost. Apricot is considered self-fertile, but it is recommended to plant several seedlings of different varieties near it, thereby increasing the yield of the tree.
Important! One of the main causes of premature shedding of New Jersey apricot fruit is tree infection with moniliosis.
Drought and frost resistance
Among the features of the New Jersey apricot, an important role is played by the resistance of the variety to drought and frost (up to -30 ° C). This fact allows you to grow stone fruit in regions with more severe climatic conditions.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The positive qualities of New Jersey Apricot include:
- resistance to low and high temperatures;
- good presentation of the fruit;
- excellent nutritional performance;
- not picky about the soil;
- not affected by root rot;
- universal use;
- the root system is well developed;
- transported over long distances;
- gives a stable crop.
- The disadvantages of the variety are:
- shedding of fruit before harvesting;
- affected by moniliosis.
Apricot planting and care
To successfully obtain a New Jersey apricot crop, agro-technical standards must be followed, starting with the right selection of planting material, time and place of planting. No less important is further care.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting New Jersey apricot in late April. During this time, the seedlings will be able to take root well and accumulate a sufficient amount of nutrients, through which they normally survive the winter. In the southern regions, seedlings are planted in the fall.
Choosing the right place
Although New Jersey apricot can grow on heavy soils, seedlings are best planted in fertile, light and oxygen-rich land. This will provide an increase in yield. It is also necessary to choose sunny, well-lit places, without drafts.
Selection and preparation of planting material
New Jersey apricot can be grown from seed, but it is unlikely that the grown fruit will be as large. It is best to buy seedlings grafted on cherry plum or plum from reliable suppliers or in nurseries.The tree should be 120-150 cm high, 1 year old, with no signs of root decay, without any damage. The root system should not dry out, so it can be moistened with mullein, bred with chernozem, in which you need to soak the roots for a while.
Apricot planting scheme
Planting New Jersey apricot seedlings is necessary, following these recommendations:
- 2-3 weeks before planting, prepare a planting pit up to 80 cm deep and 70 cm wide, at a distance of 5 m from other trees or buildings.
- Mix chernozem with peat or humus (1: 2), add 500 g of superphosphate and 2 kg of wood ash and pour 1/3 into the pit. Make a tubercle.
- Vertically set the stake to tie the seedling.
- Put the sapling evenly on the hillock, level the roots, sprinkle with earth, and compact.
- Around the trunk make a shallow moat and pour 1 bucket of well-maintained warm water.
- Cover the trunk area with mulch.
- The tree is tied to a support.
Video: apricot planting instructions
Watering frequency and fertilizer features
New Jersey Apricot Feature is Drought Resistant. For the normal development of seedlings and quick rooting, it is recommended to water them 1-2 times a week, using 1 bucket of warm water. Mature trees can do without watering for 1 month.
Important! During frequent rains, plants do not need additional moisture.
Fertilizers are carried out in the following order:
- in the first year after planting, the trees can not be fertilized, since they will have enough fertilizing introduced into the planting pit;
- for 2-3-year-old trees in the fall, add 15 kg of compost or manure, 130 g of superphosphate, 40 potassium chloride to the near-stem zone and dig deeply;
- at 4-5 years of age, feed the apricots in spring with liquid chicken droppings mixed with compost or peat (400 g of the mixture per 1 m²);
- to obtain large fruits, you can add top dressing, consisting of 30 tbsp. l ammonium nitrate, 2 tbsp. superphosphate, 2 tbsp. potassium sulfate per 10 l of water, - before the flowering of trees, after flowering, after falling of ovaries;
- in August, carry out root dressing (2 tbsp. of double granular superphosphate, 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate per 10 l of water) with a calculation of 4-5 buckets per 1 tree, sprinkle 1 l of wood ash on top;
- after the leaves fall around the crown, add about 30 kg of manure or compost to 1 tree.
Pest and Disease Control
For the normal functioning of plants, it is necessary not only to combat diseases and pests, but also to prevent their occurrence. Most often, New Jersey apricot is affected by such diseases:
In addition to this, it is necessary to constantly collect and destroy rotten fruits, fallen leaves, weeds, other debris, while digging the trunk area deeply.
Trimming branches and shoots
Another important step in the cultivation of New Jersey apricot is the formation of the crown, as well as pruning. Since the branches on the trees grow very intensively, over time they begin to obscure the fruits and weaken the plant itself, so in the autumn you need to do a sanitary pruning of the crown, which consists in removing dry, diseased and damaged branches.Places of cuts should be greased with garden var.
In spring, it is necessary to carry out shaping pruning, and in summer (1 time for 3 years) - anti-aging. All activities should be carried out by well-sharpened special garden tools (secateurs, delimbers, hacksaws, garden knives).
Earthwork consists in loosening the soil to a depth of at least 7-8 cm, regularly removing weed grass. To retain moisture, you need to use mulch, covering the near-trunk circle 5-6 cm with a layer of loose organic material (straw, wood chips).
Although New Jersey can withstand low temperatures of -30 ° C, young trees need to be carefully prepared for wintering. To do this:
- carry out sanitary pruning at a temperature not lower than + 8 ° C;
- when the leaves fall, treat the tree with 3% Bordeaux fluid;
- barrel whitewash;
- moisten the area around the trunk and cover it with a mulch layer up to 20 cm;
- wrap the trunk and the root neck with burlap or other covering material that allows air to pass through;
- if the tree is small, it can be completely covered with protective material.
Harvesting and storage
Given that New Jersey apricot is prone to shedding prematurely, it is recommended to pick fruits before full ripening. This must be done very carefully, without squeezing them with your fingers. Do not knock or shake the fruit. For long-term storage, it is recommended to collect intact, whole apricots along with the stem.Keep the crop in shallow boxes lined with paper. Spread the fruits in 1-2 layers. To save, use a dry room with a temperature of +10 ... + 15 ° С - in such conditions apricots can be stored for about 2 weeks. If each fruit is wrapped with paper separately, the shelf life is extended to 3-4 weeks.
Experienced gardeners respond very positively to the New Jersey apricot variety. If you adhere to the agrotechnical requirements for caring for trees, you can get a large crop of high-quality fruits that are used both fresh and in the form of compotes, jams, preserves.