Features peach varieties Golden Anniversary
Golden Jubilee is a popular peach variety for growing in warm regions. Despite the regular appearance of new varieties on the market, many gardeners still prefer the Golden Anniversary, so we will consider a detailed description of the variety, especially planting and care at home.
Description and distinctive features of peach varieties Golden Anniversary
Peach variety Golden Jubilee was bred by American breeders in 1921. Greensboro and Elbert seedlings were crossed to obtain a new variety. The Golden Jubilee was registered in the state register only in 1947, the North Caucasian Federal State Budgetary Institution was indicated as the originator. The variety is recommended to be grown on the territory of the Crimea and the North Caucasus.
After planting, the young seedling actively begins to grow and soon reaches a maximum height of 4–5 m. The plant has a wide-spreading, but rare crown, shoots are straight, they leave the conductor at an acute angle. Peach leaves are saturated green with a yellowish tint, large and wide, lanceolate, have a serrated edge.
Peach blossoms with medium-sized buds in the form of a bell, saturated pink. Each bud consists of wide oval concave petals. Abundant friendly flowering occurs in mid-May.
The variety is classified as self-fertile, that is, for good ovary and high productivity, planting on the site of other pollinating trees is not required, the plant is pollinated independently. However, if there are peach varieties such as Vulcan or Stavropol pink on the plot, the productivity of the Golden Jubilee will increase slightly.
The fruits have a wide oval shape, grow quite large - weighing from 130 to 300 g. The seam, which connects the two halves of the peach, is medium expressed. Peach peel is thin, but quite dense, well protects the flesh from mechanical damage. The skin has a yellow-golden color, a velvety surface and is easily separated from the pulp.
One side of the ripe fruit is covered with a burgundy blush. The flesh of yellow-orange color has medium density, slightly fibrous structure, differs in juiciness and pleasant peach aroma. The taste is dominated by sweetness with a slight pleasant sourness. The stone is small in size, has a pointed apex and a wrinkled-furrowed surface, is easily separated from the pulp.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The main advantages of peach Golden anniversary:
- early maturity - after 2 years the first fruits appear, and abundant fruiting occurs at 4 years of cultivation;
- consistently high productivity;
- high immunity to common diseases;
- good frost resistance;
- excellent taste and marketability;
- unpretentiousness to weather conditions.
- Among the disadvantages of the variety are:
- the possibility of shedding ripe peaches from the tree;
- average transportability, may not tolerate long transportation;
- short shelf life of ripe fruits - no more than 8 days.
Productivity and fruiting
The Golden Jubilee variety is very productive, and with age, the number of harvested fruits only increases. On average, from a 1-year-old plant, you can collect about 50 kg of fruits, the maximum figures are 65 kg from 1 tree. The fruiting of the variety begins in the first half of August. The fruits ripen together, so they harvest immediately, otherwise it may crumble.
Did you know? Peach comes from China, and this country is still the world leader in fruit growing.
Disease and pest resistance
Peach Golden Jubilee has good immunity, therefore it is rarely affected by common diseases, it has high resistance to powdery mildew and klyasterosporiosis. The only disease that the plant suffers from is curly leaves, so preventive treatments are required to preserve the tree.
Pests adore peach trees - they often settle on plants and have a detrimental effect on their development, so regular preventive measures are taken to preserve the crop.
Video: Peach Golden Anniversary
For active growth and abundant fruiting, it is important to choose high-quality planting material, a suitable site and plant correctly, taking into account the recommended terms. Next, we consider in more detail each of the above items.
Since peach grows in the southern regions, planting is carried out exclusively in the autumn period. Before the onset of frost, the seedling takes root and manages to build up a sufficient number of additional roots for normal wintering. Autumn planting is practiced after leaf fall, when the sap flow in the terrestrial part of the plant stops - thus, the procedure occurs without stress for the seedling, it takes root more quickly.
Recommended planting dates depend on the region of cultivation and can be set in mid-late October. It is advisable that before the onset of frost during planting, at least 30 days remain for normal rooting.
It is possible to grow peach in the middle lane on a stock of cherry plum - in this case, the plant gains increased resistance to low temperatures and normally hibernates. In the case of planting a grafted peach in the middle lane, the procedure is best carried out in the spring, before the sap flow and the buds open.
Landing dates may vary: depending on the region, landing is from mid to late April
Choosing the right place
Peach prefers to grow on loose soil, areas with sandy loam or sand are good for planting. Planting on heavy soils will not give a positive result: the yield in this case is very low, the quality of the fruit is satisfactory.
For good yields, the illuminance of the plot plays a very important role.. Choose a territory that is located in direct sunlight during the day - even partial shade can interfere with the abundant formation of the ovary. Peach does not like excessively moistened soil, so pay attention to the level of groundwater (should be low) and the height of the site. It is better to plant a peach on a hill so that during the rainy season the tree does not suffer from the accumulation of water at the roots.
To prevent the plant from being exposed to drafts and strong winds, it is better to plant it near a fence or a low building that will not obscure the peach
Selection and preparation of planting material
The quality of the acquired seedling plays a very important role in the cultivation of peach, since a strong fruiting tree cannot be grown from a sick or weak plant. It is better to choose planting material in a nursery or a specialized store in order to purchase a really high-quality healthy seedling.
Inspecting a young plant at a point of sale, paying attention to:
- root system - give preference to seedlings with well-developed, strong and healthy roots, without traces of rot, disease and mechanical damage;
- skeletal branches - the symmetry of the branches is very important, in addition, choose a tree with strong shoots that have a healthy appearance;
- vaccination site - a quality seedling has a solid root neck, without growths and sag;
- seedling age - it is better to acquire plants aged 1-2 years, as young peaches take root more quickly and enter active growth.
Important! During long-term transportation of the seedling, it is necessary to wrap the roots in a damp cloth in advance and pack them in a bag.
12 hours before planting, the roots of the plants are immersed in water so that they are well nourished and not suffer from a lack of moisture after planting. For better adhesion to the soil, it is recommended that the roots be dipped in a liquid mixture (the density should correspond to sour cream) of mullein and fertile soil.
For proper planting of peach, observe the following recommendations:
- Prepare the landing pit in advance - at a selected place, dig a recess with dimensions of 50 × 50 × 50 cm.
- At the bottom of the pit, a mixture of fertile soil and manure (10 kg) is poured - 1/3 of the volume of excavated soil.
- A wooden stake with a height of at least 1.5 m is installed in the center of the recess.
- A seedling is placed, spreading the roots in different directions, carefully sprinkled with soil to fill the voids between the roots.
- The remainder of the soil fill the pit to the top, periodically tamping the soil.
- Tie the trunk of the sapling to the support with a soft natural fabric.
- 20–30 L of water is watered around the trunk, and the soil is mulched with straw, peat or sawdust.
For the normal growth and development of a young tree, quality and regular care is very important, therefore, we will consider what measures are required to make the plant healthy and bear fruit well.
Did you know? Peach is the first fruit to be eaten in space during an American expedition to the moon.
Watering and loosening the soil
Watering the soil under regular rainfall is not recommended - the peach does not tolerate an excess of moisture. If there is little rainfall, the near-stem circle is watered during the budding period, during flowering and the formation of the ovary. For irrigation use settled water at room temperature in an amount of 20-30 liters under 1 tree. A near-stem circle is watered - for better penetration into the lower soil layers make small grooves around the perimeter.
After watering, the soil is immediately loosened to avoid cracking, to make the soil loose, to improve the access of oxygen to the roots. We also carry out weeding of the near-stem circle to destroy weed vegetation, after which it is mulched with an additional layer of peat or straw
It is recommended to feed the tree several times a season, using different types of fertilizers and alternating ways of using them:
- At the end of March, after the snow has completely melted, use a 7% urea solution in the form of foliar top dressing.
- Any potash fertilizer for peaches should be applied to the soil in early May in the form of root top dressing, according to the instructions for the purchased product.
- After the tree fades, a mixture of minerals is used to spray the crown. To prepare the product, calcined soda (60 g), copper sulfate (20 g), boric acid (10 g), iodine (10 drops), manganese (1 g) are mixed in 10 l of water.
- To ensure the sweetness of the fruits during their ripening, a root potassium top dressing (per 10 l of water 30 g of potassium) is applied under one tree.
- After fruiting, the plant is fed with a mixture of superphosphate (40 g) and calcium chloride (50 g) per 1 m² of tree trunk.
Forming pruning of peach begins to produce immediately after planting a seedling in the first year of cultivation. This tree is best suited for an improved cup-shaped crown formation system, which allows branches to access direct sunlight for even illumination and warming. The peach crown should consist of 3-4 skeletal branches, while the central conductor is completely cut off at the level of the last skeletal branch after the end of the trimming.
In the first year, the plant is shortened as much as possible, cutting off the apex at a height of 60 cm. The lateral summer shoots, which grow a little in the fall, are removed, leaving 3-4 the strongest and most even - the basis of the future crown.Selected branches are shortened by 3 buds. The next 3 years, before the tree begins to bear fruit in full force, formative pruning of second-order shoots is carried out, leaving up to 3 units on each skeletal branch, observing a distance of 50 cm between them.
Each skeletal branch is shortened by a third, young shoots are also cut into 2 buds. For 4 years of cultivation, the conductor is cut and sanitary cutting of the tree is performed, removing diseased, weak, dry and growing shoots inside. Then annually repeat sanitary pruning in spring and autumn, if necessary.
To protect the peach from the cold winter, it is necessary to carry out the following insulation procedures:
- Dig a near-stem circle, water the soil well, protecting the soil from severe freezing in winter.
- Mulch the trunk circle with a thick layer (at least 10 cm) of straw or sawdust, which will protect the surface roots from freezing.
- Insulate the trunk with burlap, wrapping it in several layers of conductor and fixing it with a jute rope or twine.
- To protect the crown of the tree, supports are erected next to the plant and wrapped on all sides with roofing material or agrofibre.
Important! To insulate the crown, do not use polyethylene — it causes the formation of condensate, which leads to moldy shoots.
Possible diseases and pests
High resistance of the Golden Jubilee variety to the main common diseases allows preserving the crop and plant health. However, the variety has a low resistance to curly leaves, which can cause the death of leaf plates, exposure and even death of young shoots. The diseased plant stops in development, ceases to bear fruit. To prevent damage to the tree by pathogenic spores of the fungus, an annual autumn treatment is carried out with copper-based preparations, such as Skor or Delavit, according to the instructions.
In addition, the prevention of leaf curl also consists of several spring sprayings:
- during the beginning of the growing season - treatment with copper chloride according to the instructions;
- 2 weeks after the first treatment - preparations “Skor”, “Chorus”, adding 65% of “Delan”.
Affected plant shoots are removed and burned, and then re-treated with drugs for prophylaxis in high concentration, according to the instructions.
Most often, a peach of the Golden Jubilee variety is affected by pests, among which there are:
- eastern codling moth - a small butterfly that hibernates in damaged shoots, its caterpillars eat young shoots and fruit buds. Prevention consists in the timely removal of diseased and damaged parts and regular treatment of shoots with Bordeaux fluid in the spring, before buds open, and in the fall after leaf fall. In case of a massive lesion, Chlorophos and Metaphos are used according to the instructions;
- aphid - a small insect that settles on the back of the leaves, eats the juice of the plant. It damages young shoots that dry up and die. Prevention consists in timely pruning, removal of old diseased branches and weeds from the trunk circle. Spraying measures are applied immediately, at the first sign of defeat - in this case, use Taurus, Aktaru, Karbofos according to the instructions;
- scale shield - an insect that settles on leaves and young shoots, feeds on the juice of the plant. It becomes a cause of exfoliation of the bark, shedding of leaves, poor productivity and slow growth of the tree. Prevention of the appearance of scale insects consists in observing the cultivation agricultural technique and timely removal of plant debris from the territory. If the affected parts are found, the plants immediately begin processing the tree with Aliot, Kinmiks, Iskra-M, Fufanon according to the instructions.
Harvesting and storage
Timely harvesting can significantly extend the shelf life of fruits. If peaches are ripened unripe, they will wrinkle during storage, lose their appearance and elasticity, and their taste will worsen. Overripe peaches, which were collected at the wrong time, quickly rot.
Did you know? In the USA, August is recognized as the national month of peach, which has been celebrated since 1982.
The best time to harvest is early August: during this period, peaches are in a state of technical maturity. The fruits acquire a pleasant yellow hue, the flesh becomes juicy and sweet, they are still fairly dense to the touch, so they are well transported and stored. For harvesting, choose a warm and dry, windless sunny day. Remove the fruits from the tree manually, carefully, without crushing the pulp - the pressed places quickly darken and soon rot.
For best storage, each peach is wrapped in a newspaper and stacked in boxes. The optimum storage temperature of the fruit is 0 ... + 1 ° C, the humidity level is above 80%. In such conditions, the safety of peaches is about 1 month.
Thus, the Golden Jubilee is a popular and unpretentious peach variety that grows well at home. To achieve maximum yield, it is necessary to follow the recommendations on planting and caring for the plant, above.
Network user reviews
Variety for the soul. A very peculiar taste with bitterness (I personally really like it), the skin is easily removed and the bone is separated. Its best use was tore off and ate right away. But it’s very tender: bringing it to the market is a problem. Stained immediately