Growing remontant strawberries at home and in the greenhouse
Today, repair plants are very popular - the possibility of obtaining a year-round crop attracts many gardeners. Repairing strawberries and strawberries are especially appreciated, because juicy, fragrant and sweet berries do not leave indifferent either adults or children, and the undeniable beneficial properties of culture for the human body make it an indispensable product. An important feature of this type of plant is the possibility of growing them not only in a greenhouse, but also at home, and therefore those who do not have a summer cottage can enjoy the harvest.
Types of Removable Strawberries
Depending on the length of daylight hours, there are several types of remodeling strawberries:
- Varieties belonging to a variety of crops of long daylight hours (DSD) - inflorescences and fruits are formed in natural light for at least 10 hours a day. Ovary formation begins in the first decade of summer (mid-end of June), and the opportunity to harvest is presented after 2-3 weeks. The second time flowering occurs in the second half of August, and berries can be harvested throughout September. The fruits of these varieties are large, sweet and fragrant flesh. However, the flowering and fruiting period depletes the plant quite strongly, and therefore, after wintering, it often needs either constant support or full renewal. Care procedures consist in regular fertilizing of strawberries, as well as in the systematic monitoring of the development and growth of mustaches.
- Varieties that are related to neutral daylight crops (NDS) - plants of this species have regular fruiting, regardless of the amount of natural light received. At the same time, bushes of such strawberries can bloom, have ovaries and already ripe berries. Adaptation of the species allows you to get a crop throughout the year, and subject to quality and timely care, plants can bear fruit for about two years in a row, without needing updating.
Did you know? The first mention of strawberries appeared in 230 BC, when this berry was planted and eaten on the territory of modern Italy.
Features Strawberry Repairing
When starting to grow large-fruited strawberries at home, you should be aware that the formation of berries occurs not only on the mothers, but also on young bushes that are formed in the process of rooting the mustache of the plant at the beginning of the season.
However, if mulching is carried out on the garden bed with a film, then rooting will not occur - in order to “help” the plant, it is necessary to punch new holes on your own and put the shoots there. The berries of the remontant strawberries are quite impressive in size - depending on the variety, the weight of the fruit can vary between 20–75 g, and in some cases reach 100 g.
The process of growing such crops has its own characteristics, which must be taken into account:
- Plants of this species will not be able to produce crops for many years: the life cycle of strawberries DDS is no more than 2-3 years, and varieties of NDS will require updating no later than after 2 years.
- To increase the amount of the second crop, spring peduncles thin out. In the process of obtaining a mustache (for breeding), you will have to sacrifice the autumn harvest.
Varieties of neutral daylight have the following feature - since the summer period and until cold weather, the bushes continuously renew flowering, and fruiting continues at a steady pace, the plants quickly “dry out”, which leads to the fading of berries in the next season.
Important! The beds should never remain «naked» — the soil is either inoculated with green manure, which must grow to frost and snow, or mulched with hay, straw, sawdust, or dry leaves.
In order to avoid such negative consequences, you should adhere to the basic rules:
- In the period from the beginning of July to the end of August, it is necessary to plant seedlings of this variety on a new bed - this will enable the plants to take root well and give a rich harvest for the next year.
- After planting, it is necessary to remove all inflorescences from the bushes, right up to the onset of cold weather - this approach will increase the quality of the crop and bring the fruiting time closer.
- The entire fruiting period, which usually lasts from the end of May-beginning of June until the first frost, you can enjoy the berries, but do not forget to plant new seedlings in late July-early August. For this purpose, you can use either root the mustache of the mother bushes, or sow the seeds.
- At the end of the fruiting period, before the onset of steady colds, all strawberry bushes must be removed from the beds.
Outdoor cultivation at home
Removable strawberries are often grown in open ground, which allows you to get a crop of berries twice a season. When choosing the most suitable place, it should be borne in mind that the site for these plants should be reliably protected from cold winds, and also not have shading. Optimum soil is neutral loamy. As a preparation, a few weeks before the proposed planting, the soil is dug up and 10 l of manure is applied per 1 m².
There are several basic schemes for planting a repair strawberry:
The landing depth, however, should not exceed 13-15 cm, and the location of the root neck should be at ground level.
When to plant repair strawberries (spring and autumn)
When proceeding to the choice of planting date, you need to know that remontant strawberries can be planted in the soil not only in spring but also in autumn:
- when planting in spring, the best time will be the middle or end of May (depending on climatic and weather conditions) - the period when there is no threat of frost return, and the soil is warmed up so that the thermophilic strawberries immediately begin to grow and develop;
- with autumn planting - The preferred time will be the end of August or the beginning of September - time that will be enough to root the plant and take root in a constant place before the cold weather begins.
Each gardener can independently choose the most convenient time for planting strawberries, however, it is worth noting that the bushes planted in the spring begin to bear fruit, in most cases, only the next year.Moreover, the climate of far from all regions allows the soil to warm enough at the end of May to allow planting. And therefore, very often experienced gardeners resort to autumn planting.
How to propagate strawberries
There are several main methods of propagation of repair strawberries, and each of these processes has its own advantages and features.
Propagation of plants by sowing seeds is one of the main methods of growing strawberries. Despite the complexity of the procedure, the result will be healthy bushes that fully retain the varietal characteristics of the culture.
The process consists of several stages:
- At the end of winter (February), planting material is soaked for three days in melt water formed from snow. At the same time, water should be changed daily.
- In a container for future seedlings, you should fill in a pre-prepared substrate, which is 50% composed of leaf humus, and two equal parts of garden soil and clean fine sand. The bottom of the container is recommended to lay a layer of drainage, which can be used broken brick. The soil mixture should be well moistened.
- Due to its small size, the seeds simply spill out onto the surface of the soil and then gently press down. Further, in order to avoid leaching of planting material, the earth is sprayed with water from the spray gun and covered with a film. The optimum temperature regime is +20 ... + 25 ° C.
- After the appearance of the first shoots (about 7-10 days), the film is removed from the tank, and the seedlings are rearranged in place with a sufficient amount of sunlight.
- At the age of two weeks, the seedlings thin out to a distance between the bushes of about 3 cm.
- Bushes are planted in a permanent place in early to mid-May (depending on climatic and weather conditions).
Rooting with a mustache is one of the types of propagation of strawberries, which is considered not as troublesome as in the case of sowing seeds, but it will require some victims - not getting a second crop in favor of young bushes. The optimal time for laying new beds is considered to be the period of the end of July-beginning of August - this will enable new plants to take root well, which will guarantee a plentiful harvest next year. During the fruiting period, the strongest and well-developed annuals are observed, on which there are large and even berries.
Important! For healthy growth and cultural development, it is recommended to adhere to crop rotation rules. — the best precursors for strawberries are garlic and onions.
The first whiskers of such bushes are laid out along the grooves on the sides of the beds. The remaining mustache, which will appear in the future, is removed, in order to avoid weakening of the mother bush. Within a few days, the mustache will give small sprouts that will begin to take root. For reproduction, only the first rosettes are left, and the ends of the layering are cut off. In August, 5–7 days before the alleged “relocation” of new bushes to a permanent place, the mustache that ties them to the mother bush is trimmed.
Shrub separation is usually used in urgent and unforeseen circumstances. This may be an acute shortage of seedlings or the need to transfer the beds to another place. Well-developed two- or four-year-olds that have 30–35 shoots are considered as the mother bush. Each of these horns consists of a rosette of leaves, upper and lateral buds, as well as additional roots - it is they who dig and plant on a new bed.
Growing remontant strawberries will require careful, regular and competent care throughout the growing season. Only adhering to the basic rules of agricultural activities, you can get a rich and high-quality crop of fragrant berries.
Strawberries of this species require frequent and plentiful watering, since the size and taste of future berries will largely depend on the amount of moisture. Before the flowering period, watering can be carried out by sprinkling, using a watering can, and then, the introduction of water is permissible only under the root of the plant, since excess moisture on the berries can trigger the formation of rotting processes. The optimum volume of water is 10 liters per 1 m².
Important! Mulching using straw or coniferous branches will not only reduce labor costs for weeding and loosening, but also maintain a constant level of soil moisture.
Wherein, the temperature of the liquid should not be lower than + 20 ° C, since cold water will slow down the growth and development of plants. After each watering, in order to avoid the appearance of a crust on the surface of the earth and the enrichment of the root system with oxygen, it is recommended to loosen the soil - the fruiting period becomes an exception. It is also systematically necessary to weed the beds. At the same time, weed should be removed very carefully so as not to damage the root system of strawberry bushes.
The soil of the beds in which the bushes of the remodeling strawberry grow, needs regular and systematic top dressing. Depending on the stage of vegetation, plants will need certain nutrients, which will give them the opportunity to develop correctly and give a rich harvest.
- First (spring) top dressing is applied immediately after snow melts and is designed to replenish the lack of nitrogen in the soil, which is involved in the formation of foliage. This component is obtained using mineral or organic fertilizers, among which mullein is often used (1/2 liter of cow manure is dissolved in a bucket of water), with a calculation of 1 liter under 1 bush; complex mineral fertilizers prepared according to the instructions; nettle infusion (chopped greens are poured with water and infused for about 4 days), while, before applying to the soil, top dressing is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
- Second time (during the flowering period), fertilizers are applied in mid-May and the main emphasis is placed on the introduction of potassium into the soil, which not only positively affects the appearance of the berries and their taste, but also increases the transportability of strawberries. Fertilizers with potassium are applied directly under the root of the plant - using a solution of potassium nitrate (1 teaspoon is dissolved in 1 bucket of water), which is poured at the rate of 0.5 l under one bush, but also as a foliar top dressing - spraying with zinc sulfate ( maximum 2 g per 10 l of water) and treatment of bushes with boric acid (5 g dissolves in 10 l of water). You should be aware that combining different types of top dressing is highly not recommended - the minimum break between their use should be at least 8-10 days.
- In the third feeding remontant strawberries need at the end of the second wave of fruiting - in the autumn, potassium fertilizers are used in the form of potassium sulfate or potassium nitrate. Also, instead, natural fertilizers are often used according to popular recipes, for example, wood ash (infusion of 400 g of ash dissolved in 10 l of water), yeast (1 kg per 5 l of water) or treatment of bushes with iodine (no more than 10 drops per 10 l of water).
Important! Increasing the dosage of iodine can lead to burns of leaves and stems of strawberry bush.
Bushes and berries of remontant strawberries are extremely attractive for a large number of insects. In order not to lose the crop, every gardener must be able to detect and conduct pest control in time, the most common of which are:
- Strawberry Nematode - worms of small sizes (up to 1 mm in length), which lead to the twisting of young leaves and their deformation, as well as the shortening of cuttings. Rapidly multiplying, these insects cause fragility and fragility of the bush and the almost complete absence of fruiting. There is practically no opportunity to deal with the strawberry nematode, and therefore it is best to use preventive measures - plant only healthy bushes of seedlings, which are pre-wetted for about 10 minutes in hot water (40 ° C), and then, immediately, soaked in cold (15 ° C), apply the crop rotation rule, and in case of infection, dig up the affected bush with the root and burn.
- Strawberry mite - insects, which, eating plant sap, lead to its drying out and complete destruction. As a preventive measure, seedlings are warmed up before planting in hot (about 40 ° C), and then soaked in cold (15 ° C) water, and then dried for several hours in a dark room.At the first sign of infection, the bushes are treated with colloidal sulfur, however, when large areas are affected, the bushes are dug up and burned.The main signs of the presence of strawberry tick.
- Spider mite - an insect that, entangling the bushes with cobwebs, causes the plant to dry out. As a pest control, insecticidal preparations are used, the processing of which is carried out after harvesting - after spraying, the beds are tightly closed with a film and can only be removed after three hours.The spider mite is the most dangerous strawberry pest!
- Aphid - pests, which, eating the juice of young leaves and shoots, lead to their complete destruction. Fighting insects is possible with the help of pesticides, as well as folk remedies (for example, a solution of laundry soap and tobacco or an infusion of garlic).Strawberry Damaged Aphids.
Among the main diseases that can become a threat to plant health and, as a result, to the crop, the following are noted:
- Fusarium wilt - Initially, the disease manifests itself in the form of the death of the edges of the leaves, a color change from green to brown and subsequent drying. Infected bushes lag behind in development, the leaves acquire a gray tint, taking a cupped shape.
As a preventive measure, it is recommended to follow agrotechnical measures, namely, adhere to crop rotation rules and use only healthy seedlings for planting. Before planting, the roots of the plants should be moistened in potassium salts of humic acids, and infected bushes should be immediately removed from the beds and burned.
- Powdery mildew - a fungus that affects foliage and stems of the bush. With such a disease, on the tree you can notice areas covered with white plaque, which, after a few days, become dark spots. The manifestation of the disease during the flowering period leads to the impossibility of pollination, as a result, the berries have an irregular shape, as well as the smell and taste of mushrooms. As a treatment, treatment of plants with fungicidal and insecticidal preparations is used, in the period before flowering and after harvest.
- Gray rot - a fungal disease that manifests itself in the form of light brown spots on the berries - over time, the fruits dry and fall off. Gray rot leaves large brown or gray spots on the leaves. Such a disease spreads quickly and can destroy up to 80% of the total crop. As a treatment and prevention, before the beginning of the growing season, all the bushes are treated with Bordeaux liquid, and after picking berries - spraying with Azocene. It is also necessary to follow the rules of care: observe crop rotation, remove weed grass and harvest in time.The initial stage of gray rot on strawberries.
- White spotting - manifests itself in the form of dotted purple and brown spots on strawberry leaves. In the fight against this disease, Bordeaux liquid treatment is used in the beginning of spring, as well as fungicidal preparations in the fall.
Prune strawberry pruning is mainly done to prevent thickening of the bushes and crop loss. That is why it is necessary to plant plant bushes at a sufficient distance from each other - in this case, pruning is not required. Also, it should be noted that most varieties bear fruit on the rooted mustache - daughter rosettes, and therefore they also do not prune such bushes.
Greenhouse cultivation all year round
Removable strawberries are often used when growing in greenhouses, with regular care and timely replacement of old bushes with young ones, you can get a crop all year round. Choosing the most suitable varieties, you should pay attention to the possibility of self-pollination, otherwise you will have to deal with the process of pollination of inflorescences independently, either with a brush or by setting a small hive right in the greenhouse.
Did you know? The largest strawberry was grown in the United States in the 80s of the last century, and its weight was 231 g.
Today, there are several basic technologies for growing repair strawberries in a greenhouse, which have established themselves as the most effective:
- Soil cultivation - one of the simplest methods, which does not require additional investments, but has several drawbacks - you will need regular and thorough inspection of the bushes for the first signs of pests, as well as berries that can rot when they come into contact with moist soil.
- In pots - a frequently used method when growing in greenhouse conditions, which, however, cannot provide a year-round crop. This is due to the rapid depletion of the soil, which is in small volumes, and therefore will require frequent replanting of plants.
- By film or agrofibre - A new technology that involves planting seedlings in small holes made in the canvas that completely covers the bed. The climate formed under the film is optimal for the growth and development of strawberries, and therefore the yield indicators with this method of cultivation increase significantly.
- Dutch technology - Strawberry is grown in bags filled with a substrate (has some similarities with growing on a film). The advantages of Dutch technology are the ease of replacing bags located on shelves.
- Hydroponic cultivation method - implies rejection of the soil, instead of which an aqueous solution with the addition of fertilizers circulates in containers with plants.
The process of growing repair strawberries cannot be called simple - this culture constantly needs to be courted and knowledge of the features of agricultural activities, and ignoring this immediately affects the harvest. However, the result is worth it - the opportunity to enjoy large, juicy and sweet fresh strawberries, regardless of the season and prices of this product.