Description and characteristics of the favorite apricot varieties
Many summer residents plant apricots, because this tree will not only decorate the site and give the garden a special “flowering” aroma, but also get a delicious sweet fruit. Variety Favorite is very common, the features of its growth and planting will be discussed in this article.
Description and history of selection of varieties
Favorite is a young, but already very common apricot variety in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (and some other CIS countries). The tree can be attributed to mid-growth (growth strength is moderate).
The crown is scattered extremely modestly, the height of an adult tree rarely exceeds 4 m. Annual trunks take a bright brown shiny shade, do not fluff. Old trunks are usually brown or gray.
The leaves are medium sized with a sharp end, green, shiny. Flowers bloom in spring before foliage. Fruits are large enough (25 g) of a bright yellow-purple hue, have a low-fluffy surface.
The pulp is very juicy, sweet, medium-sized bone, easily leaves the pulp. The variety appeared at the beginning of this century thanks to the fruitful work of the Russian breeder, Ph.D. in biology, L. A. Kramarenko.The Favorite was included in the Russian State Register of Breeding Achievements in 2004, and the variety was recognized as the most desirable for fruit stands in Moscow and the Moscow Region, as well as other areas of the central region of the Russian Federation.
Did you know? There are more than 20 types of apricots in the world. The most unusual is black apricot, which in appearance looks more like a plum. However, despite the external difference from other species, black fruits have the same sweet taste.
Characteristics of the Favorite variety
Favorite - a tree is very common, due to its qualities, because of which it greatly wins against the background of other varieties. He has a lot of pluses, and few shortcomings, but everyone who wants to plant this variety on his site should know about them.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The variety is classified as frost and drought-resistant trees. Favorite is able to withstand lowering the average daily temperature in winter to -15ºС. At this temperature, no noticeable changes are observed on the cortex.
However, it is very important to understand that good frost resistance in winter is not an indicator of unpretentiousness to the temperature regime during the flowering period. Favorite is difficult to tolerate sharp temperature drops in early spring, as well as heavy precipitation during this period.However, with the exception of this period, the Favorit cultivar is distinguished by its relative unpretentiousness and drought tolerance in the summer period: even without timely watering in the dry summer, the tree is able to grow normally, however, in order for the fruit to set properly and form, periodic irrigation of the apricot is still necessary, while To preserve moisture in the soil, the area of the near-trunk circle in regions with a hot climate is advised by experts to additionally mulch.
The main advantage of the Favorite is that the tree bears fruit well without additional pollinators (it has high self-fertility).
Did you know? The name "dried apricots" is applicable only to dry apricot, seedless, cut in half. The whole dry fruit is called kaisa.
This is a very important factor for the cool center of Russia, where the risk of return frosts is very noticeable, and therefore such an additional condition as extraneous pollinators reduces the prospect of being left without a crop.
By the way, in terms of winter hardiness Favorit is also significantly ahead of most of its relatives.Nevertheless, if there is an opportunity to plant such varieties as Tsarsky, Monastyrsky and Lel nearby, then the yield will increase significantly.
As already indicated above, the yield of this species is not the trump card. However, it cannot be said that very few fruits grow. In a good harvest year, up to 5 kg of large apricots can be obtained from one branch. On average, the whole tree per season gives about 20 kg.
Fields of application
Berries have a relatively good shelf life and are not prone to radical damage during transportation. Apricots of this variety are universal: they can be consumed freshly picked or harvested in view of delicious jams, jams, preserves and compotes.Perfect for drying and canning. Fresh apricots also make excellent filling for pies and other pastries. A bit overripe fruit can be used to make homemade wines and liquors.
Ripe fruits contain a large amount of sugar, and are incredibly rich in potassium (100 g of the product contains more than 350 mg).
Disease and pest resistance
Favorite attributed to unpretentious treesthat do not require special protection due to their high resistance to diseases and pests. However, the variety is moderately resistant to kleasterosporiosis, and may also be slightly affected by aphids (up to 1%).
Did you know? A unique feature of aphids is the ability to give birth to pregnant offspring.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The species has a large number of positive qualities and advantages against the background of other brothers. However, the Favorite also has flaws.
- The advantages include:
- rapid ripening of berries;
- beautiful appearance of ripened fruits;
- highest resistance to frost;
- the fruits are well preserved during transportation.
- The disadvantages of the variety:
- requires a lot of light;
- a tree often needs to be pruned and crown shaped;
- the fruits are highly dependent on the weather;
- low yield (about 20 kg per season).
Rules for planting apricot Favorit seedlings
Planting apricot seedlings is a very important point, which implies a large number of nuances, and they can not be ignored. The future result will directly depend on the correct choice of the seedling itself, location and direct planting.
Did you know? With a lack of light, or sudden changes in air temperature during flowering, during the fruiting period, the berries may not fully ripen and remain hanging on the tree half green.
Timing and seat selection
Timing and landing space are of great importance. However, the primary choice is the right choice of planting material - a healthy seedling. It is preferable to buy seedlings in specialized places, and even better - directly from gardeners.
However, such an opportunity is not always present. The main distinguishing feature of high-quality planting material is an even trunk and a developed root system.
The best time for planting in warm and temperate regions is autumn (mid-September - early October), in cold regions - early spring (mid-March - late April with sleeping buds).
Since the apricot loves light, it is necessary to plant it in an open place, away from trees with a plentiful crown. Permissible landing near the fences.
Preparing the site and seedlings for planting
Preparing the site for planting seedlings is a very crucial moment. Experienced gardeners recommend preparing the soil well in advance (preferably one year) before planting, but there are also express ways to prepare the land. Consider both options.
Important! For planting, trees of the age of one or two years are best suited. A more mature plant takes root much harder.
Soil preparation in advance:
- Dig a landing hole. Its volume is determined by the age of the seedling and the size of its root system, as well as the composition and fertility of the soil on the site. All things being equal, the orientation should be at 80 cm in diameter and 70 cm in depth. On a soil depleted in nutrients, the size may be larger: the more modest the planting soil, the larger the pit size should be made. The bottom must be filled with special drainage, which can be used as coarse gravel, expanded clay or small broken brick, but it is better to prefer light organics, such as chopped turf shovel.
- Prepare a rich soil mixture. To do this, add to the earth extracted from the pit: sphagnum, peat or sand (if the soil was too heavy) or a little clay to make the substrate heavier; the soil is neutralized with lime (fluff) or chalk, if the soil was acidic, and wood ash, if the initial acidity is below normal. As an organic top dressing, 15–25 kg of compost, humus or rotted manure should be added to the substrate, flavoring the mixture with biohumus and mineral fertilizers — 500 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium salt.
- Pour the prepared mixture to the bottom of the pit and cover with a generous layer of clean earth.
The scheme is as follows:
- Dig a hole in the standard size.
- Mix the soil with superphosphate (300-400 g), compost (10-15 kg), potassium salt (70-100 g) and wood ash (300-400 g).
Important! In the second method of soil preparation, organic matter must be applied to the soil with great care, since there is a high risk of spoiling the roots. Compost in this sense is the safest option, but you should not use manure and humus.
The process of planting young seedlings
The process of planting young trees of the Favorit variety is no different from planting other trees.
So, step-by-step instructions for planting seedlings in open ground:
- Prepare the tree for planting: refresh the roots by cutting their tips, also remove all dry, rotten or damaged shoots, dip them into the prepared slurry from clay and water, let the mixture dry out in the open.
- At the bottom of the pit prepared in advance, form a small hill of fresh land.
- Drive the stake at a distance of 8-10 cm from the middle of the pit.
- Place a tree in the middle, so that the roots hang down the slope, do not tamp.
- Fill the pit with soil, periodically shaking the tree to fill all the air chambers.
- Tamp the soil and tie the seedling to the peg.
- Form a borehole with a diameter of 40-50 cm.
- Pour the plant with warm water (15–20 l).
- Mulch the near-stem circle with dry earth, sawdust or turf.
Tree Care Rules
The gardener’s business does not end on the tree planting. Direct care of the planted plants is very important, since it will help to achieve the highest productivity.
Subject to all the simple rules, even an inexperienced summer resident will be able to get a wonderful harvest.
Prevention and protection against pests and diseases
Despite a very high immunity, this variety still suffers from some fungal, bacterial and other pests, in addition, the gardener may be faced with the fact that Favorit was attacked by harmful insects and even ticks.
Among the possible problems encountered during the cultivation of this apricot variety are:
|perforated spotting (kleasterosporiosis)||sawfly|
|monilial burn (fungus)||leaflet|
|brown spotting (phylostictosis)||codling moth|
Experienced gardeners are well aware that getting rid of diseases is extremely difficult. Therefore, their appearance must be prevented.There are several excellent ways to eliminate the risk of a tree disease in advance, that is, do the prevention on time.
As preventative measures, the most important are:
- Hygiene of the site. All fallen leaves and fruits must be removed, as they are targets for bacteria.
- Around the tree, it is advisable to plant plants that repel insects.
- Wood treatment with urea, iron or copper sulfate (Bordeaux mixture) or other drugs with a pronounced insecticidal and fungicidal effect.
- to remove as many individuals as possible independently (squeeze from the branches);
- treat the plant with preparations (Inta-Vir, Kirmiks or others).
To combat the resulting diseases, it is necessary to use systemic fungicides, such as:
- Luna Experiences;
The apricot root system, on the one hand, is powerful enough to independently extract water from the depths of the soil, on the other hand, it is very unstable to stagnation of water in the ground.
Given this favorable circumstances for the gardener watering the tree is necessary only 4 times during the growing season: in April, in May, in July and in October. It is important to consider that at each such irrigation, the soil should be moistened 40-50 cm in depth.
An annual plant requires 15–20 L of water for irrigation, a two-year plant 30–40 L. Every year, with an increase in the area captured by the roots of the tree, and water, it begins to require more.
Favorit is not needed for the first two years after planting. Fertilizing should coincide with the beginning of the fruiting period, and the feeding pattern changes with the age of the apricot.
The indicative rules are as follows:
- At the age of 2-3 years: 10-15 kg of humus; 0.12–013 kg of superphosphate; 0.055 kg of nitrate and 0.05 kg of potassium chloride.
- At the age of 4-6 years: 30 kg of humus; 0.2 kg of superphosphate; 0.1 kg of nitrate and 0.06 kg of potassium chloride.
- At the age of 7-8 years: 50 kg of humus; 0.21 kg of superphosphate; 0.2 kg of nitrate and 0.13 kg of potassium chloride.
- At the age of 9 years: 80 kg of humus; 0.83 kg of superphosphate; 0.32 kg of nitrate and 0.25 kg of potassium chloride.
Important! Before applying top dressing, apricot must be abundantly watered, otherwise nutrients will not be absorbed by the plant, and, in addition, the root system may suffer from a chemical burn.
Fertilizers are best applied under digging, distributing them evenly over the area of the trunk circle and falling asleep with a layer of clean soil.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Apricot should be cut in the spring before flowering. In the first year, it is necessary to do the so-called “shaping” pruning to create a common outline of the future crown.
Usually leave 5-6 branches at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other. Next spring, all branches located above 95 cm are cut. Initially, two are cut twice, located along the main row.
After, the remaining branches are cut to the root, along the cambial ring. At a level of 20 cm above the main branches, only the conductor must be left. At the end of the hot season, remove the secondary ones.In the second year, the next tier is being formed. At a height of 30–45 cm from the initial branching, a second order is made. The remaining branches are transferred to the "forming".
Large annual shoots do not touch, and those whose length is 60 cm or more are cut in half. The central conductor is shortened 20-30 cm above the last branch. Further branches are formed according to this scheme every subsequent year.
In order for the tree to easily tolerate low temperatures, it must be properly prepared for the winter period:
- To whitewash in the fall.
- Mulch the borehole with peat, sawdust or spruce.
- Fix the young shoots (so that the wind does not damage them).
- In cold regions, cover the base of a tree with sand or earth.
- Wrap the protruding trunk with a special mesh or film, and also place traps around the perimeter of the trap (to protect against rodents).
Did you know? Dried apricots are twice as high as fresh apricot. All this is due to the fact that excess moisture leaves the product, as a result of which the pulp has the same percentage of sugar, but a completely different weight.
Harvesting and storage
The favorite is a ripening tree, so the first fruits can be expected already in the 3rd year of the plant's life (sometimes the 4th). Apricots usually appear from mid-August to late September.
The amount of harvest depends on weather conditions. On average, fruiting rates are 20 kg per season. Favorite apricots perfectly tolerate transportation thanks to the elastic skin.They retain their presentation for 10-14 days. Apricot can lie in the refrigerator for about a month, sometimes even 1.5, and it can be stored frozen for up to six months. As mentioned above, the fruits of this variety are suitable for fresh consumption, as well as for drying and preservation.
So, the apricot Favorite variety is very common due to a large number of advantages, as well as its relative unpretentiousness.
The tree can easily endure both cold winters and dry summer days and give a wonderful harvest, which is suitable for eating raw, as well as raw material for delicious jams and jams. Also, dried apricots and kaisa are made from this species.