Features of the care and cultivation of strawberries Salsa
Juicy and delicious garden strawberries with a unique fresh aroma is one of the most beloved berries. Unfortunately, the strawberry season is quickly ending, and in order to extend it, there are late varieties, one of which will be discussed in our article.
Strawberry variety Salsa was created by Dutch breeders in 1988. The originator is Fresh Forward (Netherlands). It is recommended for cultivation in small volumes in private and farms.
The variety does not use industrial production, since it does not withstand competition with other late-ripening commercial varieties.
Description and characteristics of the Salsa variety
Strawberry Salsa is a late-ripening (ripening period - 110 days) non-repairing variety that begins bearing fruit in late June.
The combination of good taste, late harvest and resistance to damage by fungal diseases (mold and wilting) are attractive qualities of the variety for successful cultivation in the open ground.
Salsa blooms late - 25-30 days after the start of the growing season. The flowers are located under the leaves (therefore, the risk of frost damage is less), very large, with a lot of pollen, which makes pollination easier.Flowering lasts 15–35 days and from its beginning to ripening berries takes about 30 days.
The creators of the variety evaluate the characteristics of Salsa on points from 1 to 9 (the higher the score, the better the parameter) as follows:
- taste - 8;
- pulp density - 6;
- skin density - 6;
- shelf life - 6.
Description of the bushes
Bushes are powerful and sprawling, up to 30 cm in height, grow quickly, so the recommended planting density is 40–45 cm. Two waves of intensive growth of strawberry leaves are observed: in spring (at the beginning of the growing season) and in summer (after harvesting). Leaves are light green.
Plants give a large number of mustache shoots, which requires additional measures to reduce planting thickening.
Salsa berries are very large, conical, orange-red with a slightly convex white part under the sepals. The first fruits may be the largest and slightly grooved. On the surface of the peel there are depressed blotches of yellow seeds (about 200 pieces).
The average weight of the fruit is usually 25-30 g. Strawberries are juicy and have an excellent taste compared to other late varieties.
Did you know? Garden strawberries were first obtained in the middle of the XVIII century by selection in Brittany (France). Virgin and Chilean strawberries became the parent cultures.
The pulp is tender, the skin is glossy, thin. These qualities do not contribute to long-term storage and transportation - strawberries wrinkle and “flow”.
Salsa's yield is high - about 1 kg of berries from the bush. Seasonal fruiting depends on the region of cultivation and frost during flowering. The yield and weight of the berries remain good throughout the life cycle of the bushes.
Strawberry frost resistance is high. The variety withstands short-term frosts down to -25 ... -30 ° C in cold regions, as well as in northern and central Europe with a sufficient snow layer (up to 10 cm).
Long periods at a temperature of -10 ... -15 ° C, in the absence of snow, cause freezing of plants, and at -20 ° C and below they can die.
How to choose the best seedlings when buying?
To cultivate Salsa you will have to buy seedlings if you have not previously used this variety on your site. The plant is Dutch selection, so you need to contact the distributor company or buy plants from a reputable supplier.
This will avoid errors in accordance with the grade and reduce the risk of plant morbidity.
Important! Periodically update the varieties of strawberries that you grow, because over time, pathogens adapt to the immune profile of the variety and accumulate in the soil, and as a result, the protective properties of the plant are reduced.
A good planting material should have the following symptoms:
- the root neck of the plant is 0.6–1 cm wide;
- at the bush - at least 3-4 leaves;
- the root system should be with 6-7 branches:
- the roots are light;
- root length - not less than 7 cm;
- seedling age - no more than 1 year.
Preparatory work before planting seedlings
Before planting, you must select a site for plantation and prepare seedlings.
Preparation and site selection
Choosing a place where you can get the best strawberry growing results is an important step. There are several factors that need to be considered: illumination, soil structure, crop rotation.
Strawberry - photophilous culture and she needs areas lit by the sun throughout the day. It can withstand shading, and in such conditions it grows well with the formation of a plentiful green mass, but the fruits are weakly tied.
It is very important to plant strawberries away from massive treesso that their roots do not compete with her for moisture and nutrients. Berry culture can be located in the aisles of young gardens.Salsa is a good option for cultivation in the "old" soil, where strawberries have been grown for many years and soil renewal is impossible. But the soil should be loose and not too dense (for better aeration).
Large clumps need to be broken, leveled, and weed roots removed with a rake. Add peat, mature humus and compost (6 kg / m²) to the soil.
It is important to choose a site with good soil drainage. Strawberries should not be placed in lowlands where water stagnates. Bushes will get wet and suffer from rot.
20 cm beds are the preferred option for strawberries - this improves drainage and increases the rooting depth.Soil acidity is also important. In order for strawberries to grow most efficiently, the soil should be slightly acidic. Plants develop well and bear fruit in an environment with a pH of 5–6.2.
Important! In acidic soils, pathogenic microorganisms multiply faster, therefore, the risk of fungal infections on strawberry plantations increases.
Salsa bushes grow very much. This should be taken into account in the layout of the bushes to ensure free space.
You can not plant strawberries in places where eggplants, potatoes, peppers, raspberries, chrysanthemums grew. Precursors may be dill, lettuce, parsley, carrots, corn and legumes. Black steam or cereal crops are a good option.
Plots change every 3-4 years. The optimal scheme for organizing strawberry plantations is four plots in the garden where new seedlings are planted every year. Thus, ridges are formed with updated bushes of the first year, then the second, etc.
Before planting, carefully inspect the seedlings for lesions. Plants with signs of disease must be discarded. The roots should not be longer than 20 cm - cut them if necessary and straighten. If any roots are damaged, they can be carefully cut with scissors.
To preserve moisture, you can wrap the rhizome with sphagnum or other moisture-retaining material. The stems of the seedlings are fragile, so handle with care. Loss of leaves is not as detrimental to a plant as damage to horns, axillary and apical buds.
Did you know? In ancient Rome, strawberries were a symbol of the goddess of beauty, love and fertility due to their red color and heart shape. It was believed that if you break a "double" strawberry in half and eat it with a chosen one, then he will certainly fall in love.
Direct strawberry planting
For spring planting, start work in March or April, when the earth is slightly dry, and it can be cultivated.Plants should be well rooted before dry and hot summer days. Planting seedlings should be on a cloudy day or in the evening.
- Dig a plot on the bayonet of a shovel and level it, freeing it from large lumps, which will allow seedlings to gain a foothold and take root.
- Dig a hole large enough to accommodate the entire root system of the plant without bending it.
- At the bottom of the hole, make a hill out of the ground flush with the surface soil layer.
- Place the seedling on top of the embankment inside the recess so that the root neck is at the level of the soil. Lay out the roots on the sides of the hill.
- Fill the hole with earth. The roots should be covered with 2-3 cm of soil, and the root neck should be at ground level. Deepening the roots leads to their decay, and a small planting - to dry.
- Plant bushes according to the scheme: 35–40 × 70–80 cm - too “close” planting complicates the care and harvesting.
- Lightly tamp the ground near the bushes and pour the seedlings under the root.
Features of seasonal care
During the planting season, you need to water and fertilize, weed and loosen the soil. Carefully inspect the bushes for lesions and take action on time.
The topsoil, where the surface roots of strawberries are located, dries faster. Therefore, timely irrigation in compliance with irrigation standards is very important. Plants need abundant watering in spring - in the flowering phase, and in autumn - when laying the fruit buds of next year.
In dry periods, the rate of water consumption during irrigation is 10 l / m², and for young plants - 0.5 l per seedling every 2 days.
In rainy periods, the beds are covered with a film, since excess moisture can cause root decay, and the berries will be unsweetened.
When watering, water should be added only under the roots, and not on the leaves and flowers, so as not to provoke the growth of the fungus. Drop watering is considered the most optimal in such conditions.For further propagation, strawberries leave the first two rosettes, which are more powerful, on the mustache. Mustache is placed along the bed and sprinkled with soil. Rosettes are separated from the main bush after rooting. All other layering breaks.
Mulching retains moisture in the soil, inhibits weed growth and airborne spread of pathogens. As a mulch (a layer of 5-7 cm), you can use dry foliage, bark, pine needles, straw.
Pine needles are a good choice, as they slightly increase the acidity of the soil as it decomposes. Mulch reduces the temperature of the soil and keeps the berries intact, clean and unharmed.
Important! Do not use fresh sawdust for mulching. «take away» nitrogen from the soil and can lead to root heating.
It is necessary to maintain the soil in a loose state, without weeds throughout the season. A particularly important event is early spring and postharvest cultivation (by 7–8 cm).The first time after planting seedlings, weeding must be done carefully by hand, so as not to damage the still weakly rooted sockets.
Starting from the third year, strawberry bushes must be spudded, since over time the rhizome is aging, its upper part is exposed, young roots are weakly formed. It is advisable to use the ground for hilling in advance prepared with the addition of organic matter or compost to the garden soil.
Salsa needs standard nutrition for the culture, but care should be taken with regard to the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. If the plant receives an excess of these substances, then abundant growth of green leaves occurs, but little flower stalks are formed. This leads to fruit rot and reduces the density of the pulp. The berries become soft and easily damaged. Strawberries are fertilized several times a season and the fertilizer application scheme is as follows:
- when planting new bushes in spring, rotted organic matter is added to the holes;
- under already planting, immediately after the snow cover has melted, at the beginning of the growth of the rosette and the appearance of young leaves, complex fertilizers are applied - “Florit”, “Master”, “Agro Nova”, “Yara”, “Agron”, “Fertika”, “Omu ";
- during the growing season and the formation of ovaries, fertilizing with potash fertilizers every 7-14 days (potassium nitrate, wood ash, potassium sulfate, potassium chloride) will be required;
- in the summer they feed bushes with complex fertilizers so that they grow stronger and painlessly wintered;
- in the autumn they bring organic matter to the areas for future planting and under the rosettes planted in the spring, observing moderation so as not to cause an active growth of green mass, which can be damaged by frost.
In order to provide a higher content of organic substances in the soil, in the autumn, it is recommended to sow wheat or rye in future sections of strawberries.
Fertilizing with organic matter (slurry, manure, bird droppings), which is diluted with water (1:10), is carried out along the grooves between the rows. Then the recesses are sprinkled with earth. The consumption rate is 4 liters per meter of beds.It is better to combine water-soluble fertilizers with irrigation, while you need to make sure that the solutions fall under the roots of growing strawberries and not on the leaves.
Foliar top dressing is done with zinc sulfate or Gumi-OMI Berry preparation according to the leaves - during flowering and fruit formation, and urea - in the fall, when laying flower buds.
Important! If you prefer to grow organic strawberries, add blood meal to increase the nitrogen content in the soil, and bone meal to increase the content of phosphorus compounds, about once a month - from June to September.
At the end of the growing season, you need to mow or cut bushes by 3 cm. In areas with relatively warm winters, strawberries will not require much care to survive the winter. In colder climates, additional mulching is required if the temperature drops to -7 ° C.
For winter mulching, the beds are covered with a 10 cm layer of straw or pine needles. Sawdust, leaves or hay should not be used, as such material is compacted and caked, preventing the plants from breathing.Light moistening of the mulch will prevent it from being blown away by the wind and ensure the preservation of moisture in the "sleeping" plants.
Mulching helps reduce the risk of developing black root rot, which often affects frost-bitten plants.
In early spring, the mulch is removed so that the plants begin to grow freely. But planting should be covered again in the event of frost that can ruin strawberry flowers and buds.
Preventive treatment for diseases and pests
Strawberry Salsa is almost not susceptible to verticillosis wilting, which distinguishes it from other varieties. Tolerant to powdery mildew and late blight, but sensitive to fruit rot.
Therefore, preventive spraying during flowering is very important, as Salsa bushes grow thick and powerful, and the fruits are heavy and touch the ground.
To combat gray rot, the drugs “Switch”, “Teldor”, “Fitosporin”, “Alirin-B”, “Fito-plus”, “Chorus”, a solution of Bordeaux fluid (1%) are used.
It is necessary to collect berries in a timely manner to prevent rot. Bushes to plant on beds raised above the soil for better ventilation.In violation of agricultural technology and adverse weather conditions, strawberries can be affected by other diseases and pests:
- Strawberry Nematode - the leaves are curled, the berries are deformed. There are practically no means of control. It is necessary to remove and burn problem plants. Before planting, treat young seedlings with hot water (45 ° C).
- Weevil - late flowering of Salsa increases the risk of damage to this pest leaves, buds and flowers.During the budding period and after harvesting, spray the plants with the preparations “Karbofos” (0.3%), “Decis”, “Iskra”, “Confidor”.
- Ticks - suck the juices from plants, the leaves become stale, the berries are small. Processing spring bushes with colloidal sulfur, Neoron, Fosbetsidom will minimize damage from pests.
- Slugs, ants, millipedes, bugs - treat the site with metaldehyde, formaldehyde, Slimaks, Actellik. ”
- Bird protection small meshes thrown over wire arches or pegs can serve. After harvesting, it is recommended to remove the nets so that the birds destroy the pests.
- Fungal diseases - white and brown spotting, powdery mildew, rot. Before the start of the growing season, spray the plantation with Bordeaux liquid (3%), “Aktofit”, and after harvesting with the preparations - “Azocene” (0.01%), “Bayleton” (0.05%), “Chorus”, “HOM”, Fitosporin-M, Gamair, Fitodoktor.
To prevent the spread of fungal spores, it is necessary to carefully remove and burn plant debris, monitor the aeration and sparseness of the bushes, and use healthy planting material.
On strawberry plots, provide good drainage with raised beds. You can increase the culture's resistance to fungal infections by regular dressing and fertilizing. Use all chemicals according to the attached instructions.
Harvesting and storage
Strawberries are harvested as they ripen in 1-2 days, when it has reached the declared color. It is better to do this after the dew has dried in the warm part of the day, which will provide the best taste and aroma.
Berries are picked by hand. They should not be pulled, but plucked or cut off with scissors so as not to damage the bush. Berries are picked with attached sepals, leaving 0.5–1 cm of the stem.Harvested fruits are not washed before use. Dry berries are stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 days. But the salsa peel is tender and the fruits begin to flow quickly. Therefore, it is better to immediately eat them fresh or processed.
Salsa is not subject to transportation due to the presence of tender pulp - the berries are crushed and “flowing”, not stored for long and fresh.
Did you know? On average, global strawberry production per year is over 9 million tons, with China accounting for 41% of the total.
Strawberries are one of the earliest and most healthy berries grown in our own area. By choosing the Salsa variety, you can extend the enjoyment of these berries for another month.
Do not forget to regularly draw up to date information from articles on the successful cultivation of strawberries in various conditions and by different methods.